© International Association of Applied Psychology
In this study, dark‐side traits are conceptualised as extreme extensions of the “bright‐side” traits of the Five‐Factor Model that often have counterproductive effects. We predict which dark‐side traits will be related to ratings of “too little” and “too much” of four leader behaviors and how low levels of Emotional Stability may accentuate the relationship between dark‐side traits and excessive leader behavior. Analyses in a sample of 320 American and European managers and executives rated by 4,906 co‐workers provided support for most predicted relationships, with medium‐sized overall multivariate effects. Support for a moderating effect for Emotional Stability was also found. Scores near the normative mean on the dark‐side traits were associated with optimal levels of the leader behaviors, whereas both high scores and, unexpectedly, low scores were associated with extreme, ineffective leader behaviors. Implications are considered for future research on the role of the dark side in leadership, re‐conceptualising the interpretation of low scores on dark‐side personality scales, and the coaching and development of managers.
The authors integrate existing theory on work–family integration and interpersonal capitalisation on positive work events by examining the effects of sharing positive work events with one's spouse on employee life satisfaction. A field study was conducted with 131 employees of a large Midwestern university, who completed surveys online. Participants provided accounts of their most important positive event during the prior week and indicated whether they had shared this event with their spouse. They also retrospectively rated their positive affect and life satisfaction over the course of the study. Results based on hierarchical regression analysis indicated that having shared that event with one's spouse was positively associated with positive affect and life satisfaction after controlling for personality and event characteristics. These results were corroborated in a subsample of 99 employees whose spouses provided independent reports of whether the event was shared with them. This research reveals that sharing positive events with others has unique and significant contributions to positive affect and life satisfaction. More importantly, these findings show that the interpersonal act of sharing is effective when conducted cross‐domain: the act of sharing positive work events with family members increases positive affect and life satisfaction.
Occupational stress is associated with numerous health problems that cost organisations considerable resources. We explore whether the detrimental effects of stress on individual health are accompanied by productive effects on individual performance for self‐employed people, thereby making stress somewhat “worth it” for this occupational group. Given that positive affect can serve as a stress‐buffering resource, we also examine the potential for positive affect (PA) to moderate these relationships. Our hypotheses are tested using data from the NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow‐up Study (NHEFS) that incorporated extensive demographic, medical history, nutritional, clinical, and laboratory data representative of the non‐institutionalised civilian US population. From this dataset we created a longitudinal matched sample of 688 self‐employed individuals and 688 employees, incorporating self‐reported and physiological measures of stress and health. Our findings indicate that (controlling for past income and prior health) self‐employed people experience greater stress than employees, and they experience a positive impact of stress on income despite a negative impact on physical health. These relationships are moderated by positive affectivity, where PA accentuates the positive effect of stress on personal income and mitigates the negative effect of stress on physical health.
This paper describes a model of self‐perceptions about what is owed and what is deserved in society based on research on self‐interest and other‐orientation. Scales measuring obligation and entitlement were developed using the responses of over 10,000 participants from around the world. Results show that obligation and entitlement are not ends on the same self‐interest continuum but are better conceptualised as independent constructs. Obligation and entitlement were also shown to predict prosocial behavior including interpersonal organisational citizenship behaviors, volunteering, and charitable giving. Geographical differences in obligation and entitlement suggest that these constructs may be useful for understanding cultural differences in social investment around the world. A second study of employees in the United States investigated the role of obligation and entitlement in predicting work engagement and effectiveness in the workplace. Obligation predicted engagement and organisational citizenship behaviors, while entitlement was generally less predictive of workplace attitudes and behaviors. This paper concludes with a number of future directions for the continued study of obligation and entitlement in the workplace.
During the past decade, the construct of political skill has attracted a lot of attention. In particular, its relation to job performance has been examined. With regard to this link, it is typically proposed that political skill affects job performance in a positive linear manner. However, in this article it is suggested that intermediate levels of employees' political skill yield the highest job performance, implying that this association is in fact represented by an inverted U‐shape. Findings from two field studies (N1 = 178, N2 = 115 employee‐supervisor‐colleague triads) that incorporated different sample characteristics (early career employees, established employees), job performance dimensions (overall, task, contextual, and adaptive performance), and rating sources (supervisors and colleagues) supported this idea. Across different analyses, employees with intermediate levels of political skill received higher job performance ratings compared to those with lower and higher levels, respectively. In addition, the nature of the relationships between employees and their raters was found to moderate this curvilinear effect. Specifically, besides the fact that employees who had close working relationships with their raters generally received higher job performance ratings, the decreases in the job performance ratings of employees high in political skill were less pronounced when they had close relationships.
This paper concerns critical work behaviors for leaders across the globe and how scores on dark side personality measures predict those behaviors. Using a global archive of job analytic data, we first identify the work behaviors most critical for performance in managerial jobs across organisations, industry sectors, and countries. Next, we identify criterion‐related validation research studies including dark side personality measures and performance ratings for at least one of these critical work behaviors. Based on meta‐analytic results, we examine relations between scores on dark side personality measures and critical leader work behaviors. Also, we examine evidence of potential moderators of these relationships. Finally, we consider the implications of our results for I/O professionals engaged in using personality assessment for leadership development and executive coaching.
Scientific research on the relationship between suppression and aggression is rather scarce. Consequently, practitioners searching for means to reduce workplace aggression do not have adequate data on which factors are related to aggressive behavior in the workplace. To shed light on this relationship, this study investigated emotional suppression in a sample of 17 participants by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and examined their aggressive behavior by using an inventory assessing five types of aggressive behavior. Results of fMRI analysis suggest that the insula, cingulate cortex, and calcarine sulcus are involved in suppression. When the blood‐oxygen‐level–dependent signals of all the significant regions were tested for correlation with the ratings of the five types of aggression given by the participants’ significant others (e.g. family members and/or close friends), a significant correlation was found between activation in the calcarine sulcus during suppression and property aggression. The findings not only indicate the potential neural correlates of observed aggressive behaviors but also emphasise the detrimental effect of unsuccessful, superficial emotion regulation on organisations.
Pacing style reflects how individuals distribute their effort over time in working toward deadlines. As a new construct introduced in 2002, the notion of pacing style has intuitive appeal, but has been under‐researched, in part, due to a measurement need. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to improve the conceptualisation of pacing style and to develop and validate a new scale‐based measure. The result was the nine‐item Pacing Action Categories of Effort Distribution (PACED), consisting of deadline (complete work in a short time period just before the due date), steady (spread task activities evenly over time), and U‐shaped (invest most of the effort at the start and finish of a task, with a break in between) action styles. Across eight independent samples of students, faculty, and organisational employees, we examined the dimensionality, internal consistency, stability (temporal and situational), and validity (construct, convergent, discriminant, predictive) of PACED. Results support the use of PACED as a reliable and valid measure, and we discuss several research avenues that would benefit from incorporating the concept of pacing style.
Researchers have obtained inconsistent results on the relationship between leader narcissism and leader effectiveness evaluations. Here we draw on social role theory and recent findings on prescriptive gender stereotypes to propose that leader's and follower's gender influence the degree to which narcissistic leaders are perceived as effective. Narcissistic female leaders lack stereotypically gender appropriate qualities (e.g. kindness) and demonstrate undesirable qualities associated with the other gender (e.g. arrogance). This combination is potentially threatening to the traditionally higher status of males, thus resulting in poor leader effectiveness ratings, especially by male subordinates. Conversely, we expect narcissism to be tolerated in male leaders. We find support for this idea in a study on 145 leader subordinate dyads. Female narcissistic leaders were seen as less effective than male narcissistic leaders. However, looking more closely, these lower ratings were only found when male subordinates served as raters. Specifically, male subordinates rated female narcissistic leaders lower while their effectiveness ratings of male leaders were not affected by narcissism. Female subordinates showed no gender bias in their effectiveness evaluations of narcissistic leaders. Thus, gender differences may be an important source of inconsistencies in evaluations of narcissistic leaders.
A moderated mediation model was developed to explain the variation in the amount of time volunteers dedicate to their chosen voluntary cause. Data from 534 volunteers of an international aid and development agency in the United Kingdom revealed a positive relationship between prosocial values and time spent volunteering. The results also show that volunteer engagement fully mediated the relationship between the value motive and time spent volunteering, and the strength of the mediated effect varied as a function of volunteers' commitment to beneficiaries. These findings provide a new perspective on the link between volunteers' motivation and active participation in volunteer activities. Implications for practice and future research directions are discussed.
The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether applicants' impression management (IM) tactics indirectly influence hiring recommendations through cognitive mechanisms (i.e. recruiters' perceptions of person–organisation [P–O] fit, person–job [P–J] fit, and person–recruiter [P–R] fit) or affective mechanisms (i.e. recruiters' positive mood) during authentic employment interviews for actual job openings. Participants consisted of 221 applicant–recruiter dyads from 50 companies in Taiwan. The results demonstrated that applicants' self‐focused IM tactics are positively related to recruiter perceptions of P–J fit, which in turn influence hiring recommendations. In addition, applicant other‐focused IM tactics affect hiring recommendations through recruiters' perceptions of P–O fit. Moreover, applicants' non‐verbal IM tactics were positively related to recruiters' positive mood, which in turn affected recruiters' perceptions of P–J fit and P–O fit, thereby affecting hiring recommendations.
This study examines the effect of justice sensitivity on the life satisfaction and job‐seeking behavior of unemployed individuals and considers the likelihood of experiencing long‐term unemployment. We focus on two facets of dispositional justice sensitivity that reflect individual differences in perception and reactions to perpetrating injustice against others (perpetrator sensitivity) or suffering from the injustice of others as an innocent victim (victim sensitivity). We hypothesised that the negative effect of unemployment on life satisfaction is stronger among individuals with higher levels of victim sensitivity and perpetrator sensitivity. The former are more likely to perceive themselves as victims of an unjust situation, such as fate or the employer's decisions, whereas the latter are more likely to perceive themselves as perpetrators against the rules of social justice. Using survey data from approximately 400 participants, we found that unemployed individuals were less satisfied with life than employed individuals and that this relationship was stronger for perpetrator‐sensitive individuals. Unemployed perpetrator‐sensitive individuals were more likely to engage in active job‐seeking behavior and faced a lower likelihood of long‐term unemployment. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of justice‐related personality aspects of unemployed individuals for their well‐being and labor market outcomes.
This meta‐analytic study of 71 independent samples from 66 studies (N = 48,528) examined the relationship between job control and burnout. Based on the Conservation of Resources model, job control was hypothesised to have a stronger relationship with depersonalisation and personal accomplishment than with emotional exhaustion. Overall, results supported the main hypothesis. Moderator analyses indicated that the relations tended to be different depending on job types, the national power distance scores of the samples, and the response formats of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The results imply that interventions in job control can reduce depersonalisation and enhance personal accomplishment.
The question of whether pay structures should be compressed or dispersed remains unanswered. We argue that pay dispersion can yield uncertainty regarding others' intentions and behaviors; as a result, individuals take a greater risk trusting their group members as pay spreads widen. Accordingly, we explore the conditions under which individuals are more willing to take this risk by viewing their group members as trustworthy even when pay is dispersed. Specifically, preferences for how relationships and resources should be structured in groups should help to determine when pay dispersion relates to trustworthiness perceptions. We hypothesise that the cross‐level interaction between preferences for communal sharing (Level 1)—that is, the extent to which individuals prefer communal, egalitarian structures in their groups—and pay dispersion (Level 2) is associated with trust perceptions. Data drawn from a sample of university professors support our hypothesised cross‐level interaction, and show that when pay dispersion is greater, individuals perceive their group members as more trustworthy only when they have weak preferences for communal sharing. Our results signify the importance of individual attributes to understanding pay dispersion's effects, and show that trust is fostered when preferences and pay conditions are aligned.
Drawing from Conservation of Resources theory, this study examines the hitherto unexplored mediating role of relational conflict in the link between interpersonal justice and commitment to change, as well as how social interaction might moderate this mediating effect. Data were captured from employees directly affected by a large‐scale restructuring in a European‐based organisation. The analyses show that interpersonal justice positively affects commitment to change and that relationship conflict fully mediates the relationship. Further, social interaction moderates both the interpersonal justice–relational conflict and the relational conflict–commitment to change relationships, such that they get invigorated at higher levels of social interaction. The findings also reveal that the indirect effect of interpersonal justice on commitment to change, through relational conflict, is more pronounced at higher levels of social interaction, in support of a moderated mediation effect. These findings have significant implications for research and practice.
This study uses cognitive consistency theory to develop a model linking proactive personality to employees' work outcomes. This model was tested using a sample of 161 subordinate–supervisor dyads. HLM analysis results revealed that organisation‐based self‐esteem fully mediated the relationships between proactive personality and the behaviors of job performance and organisational citizenship behavior‐voice and partially mediated the relationships between proactive personality and the attitudes of job satisfaction and affective organisational commitment. Furthermore, perceived insider status moderated the relationship between proactive personality and organisation‐based self‐esteem in such a way that the relationship was stronger for individuals lower rather than higher in perceived insider status.
This study investigates differences in “dark side” traits between those in the public and private sectors, as well as between managers in three distinct industries. In all, 5,693 British adults were tested, roughly half of whom clearly worked in public sector jobs and half in the private sector. We also tested three groups of people (total 1,102) working in very different sectors: finance, insurance, and emergency services. They all completed the Hogan Development Survey (HDS; Hogan & Hogan, 1997), which is a measure of dysfunctional personality styles or potential management derailers. It has 11 dimensions and three higher order factors. Multivariate and univariate analyses of co‐variance (controlling for sex, age, and social desirability) and logistic regressions showed many significant differences, with private sector employees scoring higher on the factor Moving Against/Cluster B and lower on the factor Moving Away/Cluster A. The analysis of the three groups showed that those in the emergency services differed on most traits while Finance and Insurance industry personnel were very similar.
Research suggests that materialism leads to the dark side of the financial dream. In this study, we treat love of money as a mediator and test a theoretical model's direct path (Materialism to Financial Satisfaction) and indirect path (Materialism to Love of Money to Financial Satisfaction) simultaneously using the whole sample and across several demographic variables based on 1,011 citizens in Spain. Results for the whole sample showed that the positive indirect effect suppressed the negative direct effect creating an overall small positive effect. Furthermore, we found a significant negative direct path for rural dwellers, the 30–44‐year‐old age group, and married people, but a positive indirect path for rural residents, the 45–59‐year‐old age group, married, males, and urban dwellers. Overall, those in the 30–44 age group, rural residents, and married people experienced the dark side of the financial dream, whereas old (over‐60 age group), unmarried, urban, and young people (18–29 age group) enjoyed the bright side of their financial optimism. People's money attitudes and demographic variables play a positive role in our understanding of materialism and financial satisfaction, i.e. the Matthew Effect. Our novel, counterintuitive, and original theoretical, empirical, and practical contributions foster theory development and testing and improved practice.
This study set out to investigate how the strength of organisational identification is related to organisational support values and charismatic leadership. The perception of organisational support values by an individual employee is a contextual factor which determines whether (a) organisational attributes similar to the self‐concept become salient leading to cognitive identification, and (b) an affective tie between the individual employee and the work organisation is developed. Charismatic leadership, on the other hand, builds a group identity among followers primarily by emotion‐arousing leadership behavior, and therefore was hypothesised to relate more strongly to affective, rather than cognitive, identification. Two hundred employees from a public organisation filled in a number of questionnaire measures of organisational support values, charismatic leadership, and organisational identification. The findings showed that support values predicted both cognitive and affective identification, whereas charismatic leadership was a predictor of affective identification. There was also a significant interaction effect of organisational support values and charismatic leadership on affective identification; in the condition of low support value orientation, charismatic leadership was shown to be positively associated with affective identification. These findings indicate that organisational values are basic elements of self‐implicating processes in organisational contexts, and their practical implications are discussed.
As societies become more multicultural, citizens need to develop self‐regulatory mechanisms in order to successfully cope with the increasing levels of psychosocial stress related to acculturation. In this study, a longitudinal theoretical model was tested in order to evaluate the role of implicit theories of cultural intelligence, causal attributions, perceived social support, and cultural identity as predictors of acculturative stress. The research was carried out in Spain across three consecutive years with a multicultural sample of 292 students (natives and immigrants). The results confirm the proposed theoretical model using multi‐group structural equation modelling to test the equivalence of the longitudinal causal structure in immigrants and natives. Moreover, mediation analyses confirmed the mediating effect of cultural identity between the implicit theories of cultural intelligence and acculturative stress, as well as the mediating effect of perceived social support between causal attributions and acculturative stress. The model indicates the relevance of promoting psychosocial interventions with native and immigrant adolescents in intercultural contexts. In those interventions, it will be relevant to promote incremental implicit theories of cultural intelligence and internal causal attributions, as well as to highlight a more intercultural identity and to encourage greater social support networks.
We investigated relationships between four dimensions of work–family conflict (time‐ and strain‐based work interference with family, time‐ and strain‐based family interference with work) and three key national paid leave policies (paid parental leave, paid sick leave, paid annual leave) among a sample of 643 working married parents with children under the age of 5 across 12 industrialised nations. Results provided some evidence that paid sick leave has a small but significant negative relationship with work–family conflict. Little evidence was revealed of a link between paid parental leave or of a link between paid annual leave and work–family conflict. Family‐supportive organisational perceptions and family‐supportive supervision were tested as moderators with some evidence to suggest that paid leave policies are most beneficial when employees' perceptions of support are higher than when they are lower. Family‐supportive organisational perceptions and family‐supportive supervision were both associated with less work–family conflict, providing evidence of their potential benefit across national contexts.
The present paper examines cross‐national differences in the utilisation of work–family resources at the organisational level and the relationships between these resources and work‐to‐home interference (WHI) and satisfaction with work–family balance (SWFB) among professional and non‐professional service sector employees in five Western European countries. Further, it explores cross‐national variations in the gap between professionals and non‐professionals with respect to both outcome variables. Professional service sector employees were consistently found to experience higher levels of WHI and lower levels of SWFB. The use of organisational work–family resources differed across welfare state regimes and levels of national gender equality. It was highest in Sweden and the Netherlands and lowest in Portugal. A family‐supportive supervisor and a family‐supportive organisational culture differentially affected WHI of professional and non‐professional workers, with a family‐supportive supervisor being more beneficial to non‐professionals and a family‐supportive organisational culture being more beneficial to professional employees. Finally, the gap between professionals and non‐professionals was also found to vary across countries for WHI but not for SWFB. It was significantly larger in the UK and in Sweden than in the other three countries.
The moderating role of decision latitude on the relationship between work–family conflict and psychological strain was examined across five countries. It was hypothesised that decision latitude would moderate the relationship more strongly in the individualistic countries (the United States and Canada) than in the collectivistic countries (India, Indonesia, and South Korea). The results supported the hypotheses of this five‐country‐based cross‐national investigation. The implications of the findings for theory and practice in the area of international and cross‐cultural research on work and family conflicts in the organisational context are discussed.
Work–life balance has important implications for both personal well‐being and work‐related outcomes. This study investigated gender differences in multisource ratings of work–life balance, based on self‐reports and supervisors' appraisals of 40,921 managers in 36 countries. Based on a combination of theoretical ideas from social role theory (Eagly & Wood, 2012), prior work–life literature, and gender egalitarianism as a cultural dimension related to societal gender roles, the study tested gender egalitarianism as a moderator of cross‐national variations in these gender differences. Based on multilevel (HLM) analyses, results showed more cross‐national variation by ratee gender in supervisors' appraisals than self‐reports, suggesting that supervisors' perceptions reflected greater influence of societal gender stereotypes. Supervisors rated women lower in work–life balance than men in low egalitarian countries, but similar to men in high egalitarian countries, and only appraisals of women varied depending on egalitarian context. Country gender egalitarian values explained the majority of variation in supervisors' appraisals of women's work–life balance, whereas women's self‐reported balance was linked to objective gender inequalities. Taken together, the findings show that supervisors' perceptions of employees' work–life balance differed by ratee gender and country context, with important implications for work–life theory and practical implications for global employers.
This study adopted social exchange theory to investigate whether work‐to‐family enrichment functioned as a mediator between work support (supervisor support, co‐worker support, and organisational support) and job satisfaction among 543 employees in two cities in China. A series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) supported a 10‐item Work Support Scale measuring supervisor support, co‐worker support, and organisational support. Structural equation modelling (SEM) results showed that work‐to‐family enrichment fully mediated the association of supervisor support and organisational support with job satisfaction. Based on multiple group comparisons, the proposed model fit both genders and family types (single living with extended family vs. married living with family members). The critical ratios for parameter differences indicated that the relationship between work‐to‐family enrichment and job satisfaction was significantly stronger for females than for males. The implications of findings and directions for future research on work–family enrichment are discussed in the paper.
This study developed and tested a structural model that examined the relationships among parents’ work–family conflict, frustration, non‐supportive parenting behaviors, and children's work centrality. Data were collected from a sample that included undergraduates and their parents. Results of structural equation modeling analyses supported a spillover effect of paternal and maternal work–family conflict on their frustration. Findings also showed that paternal frustration was significantly related to non‐supportive paternal parenting behaviors. However, maternal frustration was not significantly related to non‐supportive maternal parenting behavior. Paternal non‐supportive parenting behavior was significantly and negatively associated with children's work centrality while maternal non‐supportive parenting behavior was not. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Unpaid volunteers occupy many roles and provide crucial services in countries around the world. In Australia, for example, volunteers provide emergency response capabilities to most communities outside of major population centres. Despite the valuable function of this volunteer workforce, evidence indicates declining numbers of volunteer emergency service workers, and suggests that interactions between volunteering and family are implicated in falling numbers. The current study considered volunteering as one component of the community microsystem, and examined volunteering‐related Work–Family Conflict (WFC) and Work–Family Facilitation (WFF) in N = 682 Australian volunteer firefighters. Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis indicated that brigade operational demands had a negative indirect effect on intention to remain through volunteer WFC, as well as a concurrent positive effect on satisfaction. Two volunteering resources were considered (training opportunities and effective leadership), and had positive impacts on volunteer WFF through perceived developmental gain. Although developmental gain had a large positive impact on volunteer satisfaction, volunteer WFF did not. Results indicate that theoretical models of interactions between paid work and family can inform understanding of interactions between voluntary work and family, and thus links between community and family roles. Implications for volunteer emergency services organisations are discussed.
We conducted five interlocking studies to develop and validate a family role performance scale that can be used across cultures. In Study 1, we generated scale items based on interviews with individuals representing various family and work structures in the United States and Israel. In Study 2, we surveyed both US and Israeli participants to assess measurement equivalence, dimensionality, and reliability. In Study 3, we refined the items and repeated the exploratory analyses. In Studies 4 and 5, with samples from the United States and Europe, we confirmed the scale dimensionality and established convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity. We contribute to the work‐family literature by providing a valid instrument for assessing performance within the family domain.