Curtis, R. and Knaan-Kostman, I., Adelphi University, USA
Graduates of two psychoanalytic institutes, one American (n=35) and one Norwegian (n=40), responded to questionnaires containing 68 analyst behaviors and 79 questions regarding their changes while patients in their own analyses. They also reported their degree of overall change and the extent to which factors at the time other than psychoanalysis might have contributed to their psychological change. Forty-four of the 68 items were significantly correlated with overall reported change. These 44 items were entered into a factor analysis, revealing five factors. Interestingly, the best predictor of change was the factor of active interventions and insight (r=.54), followed by the factor of acceptance and support (r=.49), and finally the factor of self-disclosure and mutuality (r=.28), as indicated by a multiple regression analysis. The item "helped me become aware of psychological experiences I was avoiding" was the single item most highly correlated with overall change. Unsolicited advice was not related to change. Analysts believed they changed most in regard to confidence and acceptance of feelings and impulses and relationships and pleasure. The results show that it is not simply the therapeutic relationship and warmth, genuineness, and empathy that are most related to outcome, but that specific interventions on the part of the therapist play the most important role.