Chung, K.S., Choi, J.S. and Park, Y.S., Inha University and Kim, U., Chung- Ang University, Korea
The purpose of this study is to analyze the psychological variables, which have an influence on academic achievement as adolescents move up from sixth- grade to eight-grade. The psychological measurements are parent-child relationship, social support, and self-efficacy. The participants consist of 4,136 adolescents (e.g., sixth-grade students: N = 961; seventh-grade students: N = 856; eighth-grade students = 830). The results are as follows: First, as adolescents move up from sixth-grade to eighth-grade, parental support, achievement pressure, parental warmth, and conflict between parents and children have decreased, while parental rejection has increased. Also, the adolescents perceive high level of parental support, achievement pressure and warmth, while they perceive mild level of parent- child conflict. However, they perceive low level of parental rejection. Second, parental support did not have a direct effect on academic achievement but had an indirect effect through self-efficacy. Therefore, self-efficacy was the most influential variable on academic achievement. In addition, self-efficacy influence on achievement motivation. However, achievement motivation did not have a direct effect on academic achievement. Also, maternal support had a direct effect on achievement motivation of both elementary and junior high school students. However, paternal support had a direct effect only on eighth-grade students' achievement motivation. Nevertheless, self-efficacy is found to be an important mediating variable between parental support and academic achievement of elementary and junior high school students. Lastly, adolescents' previous academic achievement and parental expectation are found to be the most important variables in present academic achievement. The parental support had no direct effect on academic achievement, but had an indirect effect by mediating effect of self-efficacy for self-regulated learning and academic achievement.