INTRINSIC MOTIVATION IN EDUCATION: DIMENSIONS, MEASUREMENT, AND VALIDATION
Choochom, O., Behavioral Science Research Institute, Thailand
The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a multidimensional measure of intrinsic motivation in education. The specific objectives were as follows: (1)To construct and develop intrinsic motivation scale; (2)To compare the strength of contributing factors such as background, parental motivation practices, and classroom climate to intrinsic motivation; (3)To investigate the influence of intrinsic motivation on learning strategies, problem-solving ability, and school achievement; (4)To analyze the causal relationship of intrinsic motivation. The primary sample used for construct intrinsic motivation scale consisted of 573 teachers and 1672 secondary students from secondary schools in Bangkok. The second sample used for validation of theoretical framework of intrinsic motivation was composed of 567 7th grade students. The major instrument was intrinsic motivation scale (student form and adult form). There were other measures of similar and different constructs from the intrinsic motivation scale used in order to examine the construct validity of intrinsic motivation scale. Moreover, questionnaires designed to measure environmental and effective learning variables were administrated to collect data. The structural equation modeling technique was used to analyze the data. The research findings were summarized as follows: (1)There were five dimensions of intrinsic motivation (i.e., challenging, interest-enjoyment, autonomy, need of competence, and determination). Each dimension contributed to an overall construct of intrinsic motivation; (2)The parental motivation practices factor contributed to male and female students' intrinsic motivation the most, the background factor was second for male students while the classroom climate factor was second for female students; (3)Perceived parental intrinsic motivation positively affected students' intrinsic motivation the most, whereas perceived parental extrinsic motivation negatively affected students' intrinsic motivation.Similarly, perceived teachers' encouragement of autonomy had positive effect on students' intrinsic motivation, but perceived teachers' control had negative effect on female students' intrinsic motivation; (4)Intrinsic motivation directly and indirectly affected surface learning strategy, self - regulation learning strategy, deep learning strategy, general problem - solving ability, problem - solving ability in inductive reasoning on number, and school achievement; (5) The empirical causal relationship of intrinsic motivation in learning context fitted with theoretical framework of intrinsic motivation. Specifically, prior knowledge parental motivation practices, and classroom climate had effects on intrinsic motivation, and effective learning behavior was influenced by intrinsic motivation.