A STUDY ON GOAL ORIENTATION BETWEEN ATHLETES AND NON-ATHLETES IN HONG KONG
Cheng, P., Hong Kong Sports Development Board, Hong Kong
This study investigated the achievement motivation in two groups of subjects in Hong Kong, (1) competitive athletes (N=55) and (2) non-athletes using university students as subjects (N=154). Objective was in two folds: (1) to compare between the athletes and university students whether gender and being athletes influence one's goal orientation (2) among the athletes, whether gender and age (2-16, 17-21) have any influence in their achievement motivation in sport. Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) was administered to these subjects. Athletes and non- athletes were first matched according to their age. Since there were only 19 athletes fall into the age group of the college students (17-21), 19 samples were selected randomly from the latter group. Paired T-test showed that task score was significantly higher than ego in both athletes and non- athletes group. A MANOVA further revealed that non-athletes showed significant higher level of ego-orientation than the athletes. There was no difference in gender. Task orientation also showed no differences in gender and being athletes or not. Among the competitive athletes, no significant difference was found in gender as well as the two age group in both ego and task orientation. Based upon this data, it appears that motivational techniques for youth and adolescent athletes in Hong Kong should focus on improving the skills necessary for their sport for both male and female. The higher ego orientation among the university students may due to the highly competitive educational system in Hong Kong.