Chan, M.S., Institute of Mental Health and Nair, E., National University of Singapore, Singapore
The present study investigated whether differences exist between smokers and non-smokers in terms of perceived stress and satisfaction with, and quality of relationship with parents. An attempt was also made to verify the relationship between family smoking norms and values and children's smoking behaviors. A sample of 173 undergraduate students of the National University of Singapore (87 females, 86 males; mean age = 22.4) were approached at various locations around the campus. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire consisting of sociodemographic questions, the Perceived Stress Scale and the Children's Report of Parental Behavior Inventory. Spearman's correlation coefficients for ranked data was run, and it was found that smoking behavior in participants was related to being from a family that models smoking behavior and displays pro-smoking norms. Independent samples t-tests indicated that smokers had a lower mean score than non-smokers on the quality of relationship with their fathers, and satisfaction with father and mother. Smoking was inversely related to satisfaction with the relationship with both father and mother, and the quality of the paternal relationship specifically. The findings provide support for the social learning of smoking behavior in families, and for differences between smokers and non-smokers in family relationship variables.