CULTURAL BELIEFS AND LEARNING: SOCIAL AXIOMS, ACHIEVEMENT GOALS, AND LEARNING STRATEGIES OF FILIPINO COLLEGE STUDENTS
Bernardo, A.B.I., De La Salle University-Manila, Philippines
Educational psychology research has linked cross-national differences in achievement to differences in cultural beliefs and practices related to educational processes and outcomes. Recently, cross-cultural psychologists proposed "social axioms" as dimensions of culture. In particular, social axioms represent five general belief factors (social cynicism, reward for application, social flexibility, fate control, & spiritual consequences) that can be used to understand similarities and differences among cultures. However, these beliefs are pitched at the individual level and can also be used to understand individual differences within a culture. The study looks into the relationships among the five social axioms factors and two educational variables: achievement goals (mastery, performance, avoidance, & conformity) and learning strategies (rehearsal, elaboration, organization, critical thinking, metacognitive strategies) in 279 university students in the Philippines. The results show that: (a) reward for application, and to a lesser extent social flexibility, is positively correlated with higher achievement goals and the different learning strategies, (b) social cynicism, fate control, & spiritual consequences were correlated with the lower achievement goals, and were not associated with the different learning strategies. The discussion focuses on the notion that learning beliefs and practices and are rooted in, or at least related to, more basic beliefs about the social world.