MOTIVATION IN CONTEXT: FEATURES OF SETTINGS THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE MOTIVATION OF ATHLETES AND MUSICIANS
Beltman, S., Murdoch University, Australia
Recent theory and research on motivation has shifted from a focus on individual characteristics such as personal motivational goals, to a consideration of motivation in context. Current theoretical and empirical findings suggest that motivation, like other constructs related to learning, is 'situated' within particular contexts. A reciprocal relationship exists between the personal history and characteristics of individuals, and the contextual environments or social settings in which they develop and act. Different settings offer enabling or constraining features that determine whether and how particular individuals will engage with that setting. In the present study, expert athletes and musicians, who participate in team sports or musical ensembles, were interviewed about three different contexts in which they play sport or music: individual practice, group practice, and group performance. Participants' perceptions of the various settings in which they practice and perform were gained in relation to various components of motivation: cognitive (eg beliefs about the importance of each setting), affective (eg enjoyment and interest of each setting), and behavioural (eg degree of participation in that setting). The analysis focused on the enabling and constraining features of the practice and performance contexts that contributed to the motivation of the athletes and musicians.