Alfermann, D., and Sabine, W., University of Leipzig, Germany
Since the seventies two approaches on coaches' leadership behaviors have received the most attention. One is the behaviorally oriented approach of Frank Smoll and Ronald Smith (Smoll & Smith, 1989). The other one is the multidimensional model of Panakathian Chelladurai (Chelladurai & Riemer, 1998). All in all both approaches differ in the measurement devices but lead to similar results and recommendations about coaches' behaviors. Two studies were conducted with young athletes and their coaches. The first study followed the framework of Chelladurai, but used a four-dimensional questionnaire measuring coaches' behaviors from young athletes' perspective three times with one-year intervals. Results show that athletes with performance increments within the two-year period perceive their coaches as giving higher amounts of instruction, feedback, and social support than athletes with no performance increments. In the second study coaches behaviors' were videotaped and grouped into categories, similar to the Smoll and Smith behavioral assessment system. In addition, athletes and coaches estimated the coaches' behaviors on the same dimensions. A comparison of both approaches reveals detailed information about coach- athlete interaction processes. Similarities and differences between coaches' and athletes' perspectives are discussed.