SELF-FOCUSED ATTENTION, SELF-ESTEEM, AND PREDICTIONS ABOUT THE PREPARATION TIME FOR AN EASY EXAMINATION
Fujishima, Y., Hitotsubashi University, Japan
Using a field setting of the examination in introductory psychology, the present study examined the effect of self-focused attention on high and low self-esteem persons' predictions of their preparation time for an easy examination. Generally, people might feel that they do not need a specific preparation for an easy examination. However, if they found they had a lot of weaknesses on themselves, they might feel they should prepare for the examination. So the preparation time predicted by self-focused low self- esteems should be longer than their actual preparation time, whereas the preparation time predicted by high self-esteems and no-focused low self- esteems should be as long as their actual preparation time. Approximately one month before the midterm examination, 50 high self-esteems and 47 low self-esteems predicted their preparation time for the examination. This examination was introduced as an easy one. Participants in the self-focus condition filled out a biographical questionnaire and then made their time predictions, whereas participants in no-focus condition predicted their preparation time and then filled out a biographical questionnaire. All participants took the midterm examination actually, and reported their actual preparation times. Results supported the hypothesis. Although the predicted time for preparation was generally longer than the actual time, the discrepancies between the predicted time and the actual time among self- focused low-esteems were larger than those among high self-esteems and no- focused low self-esteems. The roles of focused attention and self-esteem in judgments about future events were discussed.