Ikuma, J., Shonan Institute of Technology, Kimura, H., Waseda University, Japan and Zhang, R.S., Beijing Normal Unibersity, China
This study concerned the cognitive structure of beliefs about health and differences in it between Japan and China. After collecting Japanese and Chinese students' free descriptions of their health beliefs in everyday life, a new inventory of 50 items was developed. Japanese college students (N=118) and Chinese university students (N=81) rated their health beliefs in this questionnaire. Factor analysis by Varimax rotation was performed on these data. The following five factors were obtained and named as "Autonomy" (F-I), "Self-actualization" (F-II), "Physical Factor" (F-III), "Mental Factor" (F-IV) and "Health-practice" (F-V). The differences of factor scores between Japanese college students and Chinese university students were found in F- I, F-III and F-IV. The results suggest that Japanese college students have a tendency to grasp health in terms of physical well-being, while Chinese university students are apt to conceive health in the context of social and psychological well-being. Finally, these findings were discussed from the cross-cultural viewpoint.