Hatano, G., University of the Air, Japan
Many of us educational researchers?are interested in how we can teach students so that they can apply learned procedures adaptively. School teaching is considered to be highly successful only when students, based on what they have learned, invent effective procedures to deal with new problems. However, we donot know much about the process through which students come to apply skills flexibly and invent new procedures. Investigators on transfer have almost unanimously concluded that students seldom apply aptlythose procedures that are trained in a short period of time at school to problem solving outside school. This talk presents the notion of adaptive experts as against routine experts, who are able to (1)comprehend why those procedures which they know work, (2) modify these procedures flexibly when needed, and (3) invent new procedures when none of the known procedures are effective. Then it discusses wherethe adaptiveness of adaptive experts comes from, in other words, their characteristic knowledge base. Next, it offers a few ideas about sociocultural contexts for adaptive expertise. The talk concludes with implications the notion of adaptive expertise has for designing the learning environment in school.