PROACTIVE COPING, RESOURCE MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING: IMPLICATIONS FOR WELL- BEING AND THE PROMOTION OF HEALTH
 
Greenglass, E.R., York University, Canada
 
Research suggests that effective coping with daily stressors necessitates a multidimensional approach. While in the past, coping was seen mainly as reactive, more recently coping is being seen as something one can do before stress occurs. A proactive approach to coping is multidimensional and oriented more towards the future. Proactive coping consists of efforts to build up general resources that facilitate promotion of challenging goals and personal growth. The Proactive Coping Inventory (PCI) consists of 6 subscales that assess various aspects of a proactive approach to problems. The Proactive Coping Scale combines autonomous goal setting with self- regulatory goal attainment cognitions and behavior. The Reflective Coping Scale describes contemplation about a variety of behavioral alternatives by comparing their imagined effectiveness, and includes brainstorming and generating hypothetical plans of action. Instrumental Support Seeking, another PCI subscale, focuses on obtaining advice, information and feedback from people when dealing with stressors. Using structural equation modeling, Reflective coping in students leads to positive reframing, which in turn results in greater acceptance and lower depression. Additional findings show that Instrumental support seeking leads to reports of more advice and guidance that, in turn, results in an increase in functional ability in the elderly. Additionally, proactive coping increases feelings of professional efficacy in a sample of employed adults and this leads to greater job satisfaction. Proactive coping also contributes to greater life satisfaction. Taken together, the PCI with its subscales appears to be a promising instrument for measuring those factors that contribute to increased well-being.