SUBJECTIVE JUDGMENT FOR THE NUMBER AND PROBABILITY OF DEATH DEPENDING ON CAUSE OF DEATH: COMPARISON OF MALE/FEMALE, SELF/OTHERS, U.S./JAPAN
 
Kugihara, N., Kyushu Institute of Technology, Japan
 
When evaluating death there is often some discrepancy between the objective risks (statistical data) and subjective risk judgment. The reason for this arises from the difficulty in recognizing the concept including the risk that is inseparably related to uncertainty. In this research we examined whether or not the discrepancy between objective data and subjective evaluation comes from the stance of evaluators and persons evaluated or from their gender. Subjects were classified into four groups according to gender of the evaluator and those evaluated. Regarding the various causes of death (32 categories which were listed from the top in descending order ) subjective evaluations as questionnaires were collected from the view of the number of deaths nationwide, average probability of death, and their own probability of death considered. As a result, it was clear that males tended to overvalue the average probability of others' death. On the other hand, when females evaluated themselves, they tended to overestimate their probability of death by unforeseen events such as disaster and accidents and underestimate illness. Also, no difference was found in the evaluation between Japan and the U.S. From this, regarding death recognition and evaluation, we may conclude that there is a gender difference and a commonality that transcends national or cultural borders.