CREATING POSSIBILITIES: A QUARTER-CENTURY RETROSPECTIVE ON "SEEDING STRATEGIES" FOR INDONESIA'S EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Krafft, L.J., Temple University, USA
From the mid-1970's through the early 1990's the author was involved in delivery and assessment of a succession of educational development efforts throughout Indonesia. These efforts are described as they evolved in a dynamic political and multicultural milieu. While domestic involvement and control prevailed each of these efforts included significant international technical assistance and funding. The various endeavors provided direct exposure of Indonesians to models and practices across Asia, Western Europe and North America. These efforts emerged under conditions that were targeted to meet immediate demand while most people involved had high awareness of extreme uncertainty. The presentation describes how a process of "seeding" for the co-evolution of collective and individual understanding or "mind" in preparation for alternative but unknown futures functioned as "the elephant-in-the-room" of these development efforts. Chaos and uncertainty were resisted resolutely through a centralizing government, educational system and language. As participants assessed national and local needs through global and local lenses they engaged in complex-adaptive processes of learning and practice. While constructing centralizing curricula, practices and institutions, participants internalized context-based cross-cultural emergent design approaches. Recognizing realities of current systems participants realized and prepared psychologically for of a range of alternative trajectories. Although there was no single master plan for the series of development interventions, patterns emerged. While describing interventions and products the presentation emphasizes the nature of major shifts in mind and practice that may occur more than what tangibles did occur.