UNRAVELING THE COMPLEXITIES OF HUMAN DESTRUCTIVENESS, CREATIVITY, AND POTENTIAL: INDIGENOUS ANALYSIS OF THE SELF, RELATIONSHIP, CULTURES AND CIVILIZATIONS
Kim, U., Chung-Ang University, Korea
Prior to the September 11 bombing in the USA, researches on national development and transformation have focused mainly on developing countries. Prior to the incident, Francis Fukuyama received international attention when he pointed out that the collapse of traditional monarchism, fascist Right, communistic Left, and authoritarian governments were inevitable and the ideals of liberal democracy will emerged triumphant as the end point of mankind's development. However, the recent terrorist acts in the United States shook the world and brought back the ideas of clash of civilization, espoused by Samuel Huntington. Similar to the radical Muslims who hid behind the veils of Islam to justify their horrific acts, we have witnessed many historical instances in which Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Judaism have been used to justify and destroy human lives and dignity. Also science has been used to dehumanize and justify inequalities, injustices, and genocide as in the case of Nazism, which used social Darwinism to justify to its crime against humanity. The key ideological tool that religious leaders, politicians, and scientists have used is to deny individuals and groups of personal and collective agency, to use Bandura's terminology. Since we are driven by our instinct or the call of God, we are justified in our action and not accountable for the outcome. To equate human beings as animals or as saints is to dehumanized and distort human essence and agency. This presentation outlines the transaction model of science that focuses specifically on the human agency to develop, construct, and create our reality. This presentation will provide a comparative analysis of the psychological, religious, and philosophical background in understanding cultures and civilizations. It will also outline a trajectory of human development in the cultural context by examining family and child development, school and education, organizations and economic development, health and well-being, and democracy and political change. This presentation will conclude by focusing on how indigenous, cultural and psychological knowledge can contribute to a better understanding of national and international development and transformation.