REVIEW ON RESEARCH ABOUT THE ROLES OF TEACHERS IN RELATION TO STUDENTS' ACHIEVEMENT MOTIVATION
Kartika, A. and Sugoto, S., Surabaya University, Indonesia
Achievement motivation is considered important since it propels students to reach higher performance. Students with high achievement motivation will be able to set realistic, moderately difficult goals, take risks and cope with failures constructively. They generally attribute success to their own effort, and so they assume responsibility for learning. Motivated students seem to have every energy needed for fulfilling their eagerness for learning and their curiosity. Motivation, especially in children, can be encouraged by appropriate environment, i.e. good family atmosphere, and supporting school environment. Concerning learning process in school, teachers have an important role to motivate students. Meanwhile, in Indonesia, the skills of teachers still need to be improved. The result of the study done by Sidoarjo School Improvement Program (Creemers, Kaluge, Pudjibudojo, et.al, 2001) showed that classrooms' climate tend to be negative. 70 % teachers (of 38 participants) have not demonstrated enthusiasm in their teaching. They tended to have inadequate expectation to the students, did not have sufficient ability in encouraging or motivate students to learn. Besides, it seemed their lack of classroom management skills made them tend to give negative feed back on students behaviors instead of the positive ones. Teachers usually used punishment to discipline students. Some research done on the strategies teachers use to motivate students demonstrate that teachers certainly have significant roles in enhancing students motivation. Made and Sugoto (1998) explained that students perception on teachers personal characteristics, such as patience, warmth, modest, clear explanation, diligent, and fairness, correlated with their motivation to learn. When they have good perception, students would be more motivated (rxy= 0.274 with p < 0.05). Teaching methods have influence on students' motivation as well. As explained by Nicke & Sugoto (2000), when teacher used varied teaching method (field trip, simulation, and demonstration using visual aid) instead of just lecturing, would enhance students motivation (rxy= 0.376 with p < 0.05). Another strategy teacher usually use to encourage students to learn more is to put students with high abilities in one class (tracking). It assumes that competition will be higher among students with similar abilities. However, Sugoto and Kartika (2001) found that there was no significant difference (F =2.788 with p > 0.05) between the tracked and untracked class. Classifying or putting students of similar ability in one classroom did not automatically made them more motivated, since the increase of students' intrinsic motivation was more influenced by teacher approach individually than just putting them together on the classroom of similar ability. The good news was that students can be taught to develop intrinsic motivation through intensive training. Teacher themselves can guide the students to continuously encourage themselves to learn, as shown by Yuliani, Sugoto & Kartika. This study showed that there was a significant increase of students' intrinsic motivation after they had self-motivation training (F = 4.870 with p <0.05). This research review illustrates that teacher certainly have significant role to help students enhancing their learning motivation. In the future, it was suggested that the Indonesian Department of Education gives further training to the teachers concerning aspects as follows: teacher's personality development, increasing good students-teacher's interaction, varied teaching methods which are appropriate to students cognitive development, and also the strategies to motivate students without assigning students to ability grouping.