EFFECTS OF INCIVILITY AT THE WORKPLACE: AN INTEGRATED MODEL
Lim, G.P. and Cortina, L.M., University of Michigan, USA
While the study of workplace aggression has tended to focus on more specific or extreme forms of antagonistic behavior (e.g., physical violence, sexual coercion), recent surveys revealed that another form of aggression appear to be much more prevalent and have similar negative consequences, yet seem to be more socially acceptable (e.g., Keashly, 1998). "Workplace incivility" (Andersson & Pearson, 1999) is used to capture this range of verbal and non-verbal behaviors that do not involve violence and are not specifically tied to racial or sexual content, but are characteristically rude and displays a lack of regard for others at the workplace (e.g., making a demeaning remark to a coworker). An increasing number of studies have started to document the prevalence and effects of workplace incivility, but coordinated efforts to study these effects have not been possible due to the lack of a guiding framework. The current study thus attempts to provide such a framework by proposing a holistic model that traces both the direct and indirect consequences of workplace incivility on three types of outcomes: job-related, psychological and health. Using structural equation modeling, the proposed model was validated on data collected from a survey of 1158 court employees. Results revealed that both personal experiences of incivility and perceived climate of incivility produced independent negative effects on the outcomes. Avenues for future research and implications for organizations were discussed.