Lam, S.F., Ma, Y.K. and Pak, T.S., The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR
The purpose of the study was to develop and examine the Inventory of Motivating Environment for Learning (IMEL). The IMEL is a student-report measure that describes the extent to which teachers use motivating strategies in teaching. The IMEL consists of 6 subscales: 1) challenge, 2) real life significance, 3) curiosity, 4) autonomy and authority, 5) recognition, and 6) Evaluation and Feedback. There are 5 items in each of the 6 subscales. Secondary students of grade 7 to 13 (n = 2300) from 10 schools in Hong Kong were invited to complete the IMEL, Harter's Intrinsic Motivation Scales, and Goal Orientation Scale. The results of the confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the data fit well to a second order-model with the 6 subscales each measured a second order-construct. The results of internal reliability tests also indicated that the subscales had adequate internal consistency. In terms of criterion-related validation, the IMEL was positively correlated with Harter's Intrinsic Motivation Scales and Goal Orientation Scale. More the students reported that their teachers employed motivating strategies, more would they be intrinsically motivated in learning and more would they adopt learning goal instead of performance goal. However, it was also found that across different grade levels, students in higher grades reported that their learning environment was less motivating and their intrinsic motivation decreased correspondingly.