TOWARDS AN ASIAN PSYCHOLOGY: PROFILING AND TRANSFORMATIVE JUSTICE IN THE JUVENILE JUSTICE DIVISION OF THE SUBORDINATE COURTS OF SINGAPORE
Ozawa, J.P., Family and Juvenile Justice Centres, Singapore
This paper is a consideration of offender profiling and transformative justice in the Juvenile Court of Singapore with special focus on delineating an "Asian psychology." Clinical paradigms of optimal human functioning are dependent on specific cultural norms. Therefore, profiling of criminal behaviours, predicting recidivism, expressions of restoration or bonding and the implementation of transformative / restorative justice can be culture-specific. Primarily as a vehicle for provoking discussion, this paper presents a possible Asian psychology of behaviours relevant to criminal behaviours and rehabilitation. Some alleged Western norms (e.g. individualism, democracy, transparency, direct communications) are contrasted with Asian values (e.g. saving face, indirect communications, hierarchical organization, filial piety, collective shame, and the primacy of honor, deference, and self-effacement). Case studies are presented in which specific patterns of interaction are designed to enhance mediation and transformation - e.g. the Malay / Muslim "salam," filial piety, and "giving face."