STRUCTURES AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES OF INTERNAL FRAME OF REFERENCE USED IN PERFORMANCE APPRAISAL
Yanagizawa S., Nakamura University, Hisataka, F., Kyushu University and Horiuti K., The Sanno Institute of Management, Japan
It is supposed that the rater would process ratee's information and evaluate his or her job performance based on "internal" and "external" frame of reference (FOR). Internal FOR emerges in the rater as a reflection not only of his own value on organization, job, and evaluation, but also of his work and appraisal experience. External FOR is provided by the organization in the performance appraisal. Interrater disagreement in evaluation would be caused by the dissimilarity or differences in internal FOR. Although many studies on external FOR have been done in terms of FOR training, research interest in internal FOR is very scarce. The purpose of this study was to explore structures and individual differences of internal FOR which the rater refers in performance appraisal. To clarify the structure of internal FOR, we have made an original questionnaire that has subscales by referring to the related past research findings in the field of personal construct (Borman, 1987), value, personality, job behavior, etc. Subjects, who were managers, were requested to think of three different subordinates with excellent, middle, or poor job performance. They were also asked to rate the degree of endorsement on the questionnaire items for each subordinate. Results of factor analysis suggested that the internal FOR contained several appraisal dimensions concerning ability, job knowledge, traits, job behavior, and outcome. Moreover, there were clear individual differences among subjects in the reference to these dimensions.