THE TEMPERAMENT AND CHARACTER INVENTORY (TCI) - A CROSS-CULTURAL TOOL
 
Richter, J., University of Rostock, Germany, Braendstroem, S., Nylander, P.O., Linkoeping University, Sweden and Emami, H., Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran
 
The TCI is a widely used personality test. It was developed to measure the four temperament dimensions such as Novelty Seeking, Harm Avoidance, Reward Dependence, and Persistence, as well as three character dimensions such as Self Directedness, Cooperativeness, and Self-Transcendence described in Cloninger's unified biosocial theory of personality. In a sample of 300 Germans, 300 Swedes, and 300 Iranian subjects matched for age and gender, correlation and factor analyses using Procrustes rotation method show the structure of personality to be equivalent across cultures. Additionally, noteworthy cultural differences between the overall Arabic and European subjects reflected by our data were detected in variuos Temperament and Character dimensions. The TCI measures the fundamental structure of human personality, yet is still sensitive to age, gender and cultural differences in personality phenotype.