A GENERAL MODEL FOR GUIDING THE IMPLEMENTATION OF ORGANISATIONAL CHANGE: AN INTERPRETATION DERIVED FROM 15 ORIGINAL CASE STUDIES AND THE THEORETICAL LITERATURE
 
Williams, A. P. O., Woodward, S. and Dobson, P., City University Business School, United Kingdom
 
The implementation of change is generally regarded as the most difficult phase of the managing change cycle. The model proposed in this paper emerged from 15 cases studies. These were originally researched for a management development programme designed to enable managers to become more effective implementers of change. Five learning conditions were proposed for the programme: learners were required to express their initial beliefs concerning implementing change via a visual model that included the main variables and their relationships; the sharing of these individual models among fellow learners in a small group setting; studying a sample of the researched cases; exploring a sample of the relevant literature; opportunities to revise and share the models emerging as often as necessary (within the constraints of time available). The objective of the learning process was to arrive at a personally meaningful rather than a consensual model. A semi-structured interview schedule was used in gathering material for the cases, and was designed to encourage respondents to focus on enablers and obstacles in the process of implementing change. The cases purposefully reflected a wide range of situations. One of the authors underwent a similar learning process suggested for other learners. The model to be presented is the result of this process and will reflect the findings of the cases and much of the theoretical literature familiar to psychologists.