AMBIVALENT SEXISM AND GENDER ROLES
Willemsen, T. M., Michielsen, H. J., Tilburg University, Netherlands
The validation of the Dutch translation of the scales that Glick and Fiske (1996, 1999) developed to measure ambivalent sexism concerning women resp. men is described, with a focus on the relation between sexism and gender role behavior. Sexism against women is defined as a complex attitude, comprising both positive and negative feelings about women. The positive component, benevolent sexism, includes a tendency to protect women and to restrict them to their traditional roles, on the basis of assigning them positive stereotypic traits. Hostile sexism concerning women is more like the traditional prejudice. Similar sexist attitudes, i.e., both benevolent and hostile sexism, can be defined concerning men. The scales of ambivalent sexism towards women and towards men were administered to a representative sample (N=1435). Psychometric properties of the scales were good, with satisfactory to good internal consistency of the (sub)scales. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that the preferred factor model had the best fit. Two gender role aspects were studied in relation to sexism scores: participation in paid work, and participation in household work and child care (if applicable). It turned out that especially household participation was related to sexism, in the expected direction: fulfilling a traditional gender role went together with higher scores on various relevant sexism subscales. We conclude that even in a country with relatively egalitarian opinions, like the Netherlands, measures of ambivalent sexism are useful instruments in explaining the persistence of traditional gender roles.