Six, B., Felfe, J., Institute of Psychology, Germany
Inspired by House`s "1976 theory of charismatic leadership" there was a remarkable increase of research in the field of charismatic and transformational leadership (TL). Whereas different concepts exist (Conger & Kanungo, 1998 Bass 1999, House & Shamir 1993) there is a consensus concerning the core facets: vision, inspiration, role modeling, personal growth, trust, consideration of followers` needs etc. By influencing values and self-concept, subordinates show higher levels of effort, performance, satisfaction and commitment. How much can transformational leaders influence subordinates` behavior and attitudes? Our aim was to investigate the contribution of TL and working conditions as antecedences for several outcome variables in different organizational contexts. A meta-analysis (Fuller, 1996; Lowe et al., 1996) shows moderating effects for the type of organization. The main questions of our research are: (1) Are there differences in leadership between different types (profit, non-profit, large and small size, entrepreneurial) of organizations? (2) how much does transformational leadership contribute to the explanation of satisfaction, Commitment and OCB in comparison to working conditions? In our study we used a revised version of the MLQ (Bass & Avolio, 1995). Data were collected from 2800 subordinates and leaders from ten organizations. The results show specific leadership profiles and relation patterns to outcome variables. Especially entrepreneurial enterprises show high levels of transformational leadership.