AN INVESTIGATION TO BRIDGE THE COGNITIVE GAP BETWEEN EXECUTIVE AND NON- EXECUTIVE: FOCUSING ON THE EFFECT FOR CONTROLLABILITY
Shiomura, K., Shinshu University, Japan and Lim, H., Yale University, USA
The effects of controllability on affect and task perception are different between the executive and non-executive (How & Salovey, 2000) in a dyadic situation, where only one person (executive) has control over the outcome but not the other (non-executive). According to preliminary results obtained from research conducted in the United States, the non-executive experienced a higher negative affect and perceived a task as less difficult than the executive (How & Salovey, 2000). It is important to investigate a way to bridge the cognitive gap between the executive and non-executive. In particular, reducing the negative affect experienced by the non-executive would prove to be valuable in understanding of organizational behavior. We set three experimental conditions that varied the exchange of communication between the executive and non-executive. Specifically, the executives and non-executives are randomly assigned to the one of the following three conditions: (a) mutual communication condition, (b) one-way communication condition, and (c) no communication condition (control condition). Unlike the results in the United States, the executive generally showed a higher negative affect than the non-executive. The higher negative affect experienced by the executive may be due to a sense of responsibility. In addition, both the executives and non-executives in the mutual communication condition felt that the executives are more inclined to accept the non-executives' opinion than the executives and non-executives in the other two conditions. These findings are discussed in terms of cultural differences in interpersonal relationship.