RELATIONS OF CULTURE TO SOCIAL STRUCTURE, DEMOGRAPHY AND POLICY IN THE STUDY OF NATIONS
Schwartz, S. H., The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Israel
To advance the study of culture across nations, we must discriminate it from the social structural, demographic and policy factors with which it is in reciprocal relations. We can then explicate these relations. I present three dimensions of culture useful for mapping differences among nations. I discuss how these dimensions form an integrated whole and contrast them with those of Hofstede. Empirical data from more than 60 nations on all continents support these dimensions. I show that the order of nations from high to low on the dimensions is quite stable, regardless of whether student, teacher, or representative samples, young or old, men or women are studied. Using national profiles on the dimensions, the nations of the world map into meaningful cultural regions. I then examine some major social structural and demographic factors that help to explain why nations have particular cultures. I also consider some of the relations of national culture with national policy as expressed in laws and in outcomes of nations' allocation of resources.