AN EMPIRICAL STUDY OF SAFETY CLIMATE IN JAPANESE ORGANIZATIONS
 
Watanabe, T., Misumi, E., Japan Institute for Group Dynamics, Sugiman, T., Kyoto University, Yoshida, M., Kumamoto University and Yoshiyama, N., Oita Prefectural College of Arts and Culture Japan
 
We developed a scale for measuring safety climate in organizations and discussed the new way to improve safety climate. To prevent accidents and secure safety is one of the most important objects for us living in the modern society. We should focus not only on the causes of individual error but also on the safety climate caused them. The development of a system to check and evaluate safety climate is essential for the establishment of safety climate. We took two steps to conduct our study. In the first step, we developed new scale after having examined items of Assessment of Safety Culture in Organizations Team of the IAEA and the analyzed results of accidents in the nuclear power plants. Using this scale, we conducted survey in the electric power company and its collaborating company. We also got data from three other corporations. Total numbers of respondents were 8,714. Using factor analysis, four factors were found in both electric and its collaboration company. The former were daily activity to prevent accidents, supervisory action for safety, information exchange, and knowledge/skills of safety. As for the collaborating company, the four factors were daily activity to prevent accidents/prior check, supervisory action, information exchange, and knowledge/skills of safety. In the second step, we found strong relationship between the level of safety climate and leadership behavior in the work situation. We also developed the leadership training program to improve the safety climate and analyzed their effects of it.