© International Association of Applied Psychology
We conducted five interlocking studies to develop and validate a family role performance scale that can be used across cultures. In Study 1, we generated scale items based on interviews with individuals representing various family and work structures in the United States and Israel. In Study 2, we surveyed both US and Israeli participants to assess measurement equivalence, dimensionality, and reliability. In Study 3, we refined the items and repeated the exploratory analyses. In Studies 4 and 5, with samples from the United States and Europe, we confirmed the scale dimensionality and established convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity. We contribute to the work‐family literature by providing a valid instrument for assessing performance within the family domain.
We investigated relationships between four dimensions of work–family conflict (time‐ and strain‐based work interference with family, time‐ and strain‐based family interference with work) and three key national paid leave policies (paid parental leave, paid sick leave, paid annual leave) among a sample of 643 working married parents with children under the age of 5 across 12 industrialised nations. Results provided some evidence that paid sick leave has a small but significant negative relationship with work–family conflict. Little evidence was revealed of a link between paid parental leave or of a link between paid annual leave and work–family conflict. Family‐supportive organisational perceptions and family‐supportive supervision were tested as moderators with some evidence to suggest that paid leave policies are most beneficial when employees' perceptions of support are higher than when they are lower. Family‐supportive organisational perceptions and family‐supportive supervision were both associated with less work–family conflict, providing evidence of their potential benefit across national contexts.
This study uses cognitive consistency theory to develop a model linking proactive personality to employees' work outcomes. This model was tested using a sample of 161 subordinate–supervisor dyads. HLM analysis results revealed that organisation‐based self‐esteem fully mediated the relationships between proactive personality and the behaviors of job performance and organisational citizenship behavior‐voice and partially mediated the relationships between proactive personality and the attitudes of job satisfaction and affective organisational commitment. Furthermore, perceived insider status moderated the relationship between proactive personality and organisation‐based self‐esteem in such a way that the relationship was stronger for individuals lower rather than higher in perceived insider status.
This study investigates differences in “dark side” traits between those in the public and private sectors, as well as between managers in three distinct industries. In all, 5,693 British adults were tested, roughly half of whom clearly worked in public sector jobs and half in the private sector. We also tested three groups of people (total 1,102) working in very different sectors: finance, insurance, and emergency services. They all completed the Hogan Development Survey (HDS; Hogan & Hogan, 1997), which is a measure of dysfunctional personality styles or potential management derailers. It has 11 dimensions and three higher order factors. Multivariate and univariate analyses of co‐variance (controlling for sex, age, and social desirability) and logistic regressions showed many significant differences, with private sector employees scoring higher on the factor Moving Against/Cluster B and lower on the factor Moving Away/Cluster A. The analysis of the three groups showed that those in the emergency services differed on most traits while Finance and Insurance industry personnel were very similar.
Research suggests that materialism leads to the dark side of the financial dream. In this study, we treat love of money as a mediator and test a theoretical model's direct path (Materialism to Financial Satisfaction) and indirect path (Materialism to Love of Money to Financial Satisfaction) simultaneously using the whole sample and across several demographic variables based on 1,011 citizens in Spain. Results for the whole sample showed that the positive indirect effect suppressed the negative direct effect creating an overall small positive effect. Furthermore, we found a significant negative direct path for rural dwellers, the 30–44‐year‐old age group, and married people, but a positive indirect path for rural residents, the 45–59‐year‐old age group, married, males, and urban dwellers. Overall, those in the 30–44 age group, rural residents, and married people experienced the dark side of the financial dream, whereas old (over‐60 age group), unmarried, urban, and young people (18–29 age group) enjoyed the bright side of their financial optimism. People's money attitudes and demographic variables play a positive role in our understanding of materialism and financial satisfaction, i.e. the Matthew Effect. Our novel, counterintuitive, and original theoretical, empirical, and practical contributions foster theory development and testing and improved practice.
Unpaid volunteers occupy many roles and provide crucial services in countries around the world. In Australia, for example, volunteers provide emergency response capabilities to most communities outside of major population centres. Despite the valuable function of this volunteer workforce, evidence indicates declining numbers of volunteer emergency service workers, and suggests that interactions between volunteering and family are implicated in falling numbers. The current study considered volunteering as one component of the community microsystem, and examined volunteering‐related Work–Family Conflict (WFC) and Work–Family Facilitation (WFF) in N = 682 Australian volunteer firefighters. Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis indicated that brigade operational demands had a negative indirect effect on intention to remain through volunteer WFC, as well as a concurrent positive effect on satisfaction. Two volunteering resources were considered (training opportunities and effective leadership), and had positive impacts on volunteer WFF through perceived developmental gain. Although developmental gain had a large positive impact on volunteer satisfaction, volunteer WFF did not. Results indicate that theoretical models of interactions between paid work and family can inform understanding of interactions between voluntary work and family, and thus links between community and family roles. Implications for volunteer emergency services organisations are discussed.
This study set out to investigate how the strength of organisational identification is related to organisational support values and charismatic leadership. The perception of organisational support values by an individual employee is a contextual factor which determines whether (a) organisational attributes similar to the self‐concept become salient leading to cognitive identification, and (b) an affective tie between the individual employee and the work organisation is developed. Charismatic leadership, on the other hand, builds a group identity among followers primarily by emotion‐arousing leadership behavior, and therefore was hypothesised to relate more strongly to affective, rather than cognitive, identification. Two hundred employees from a public organisation filled in a number of questionnaire measures of organisational support values, charismatic leadership, and organisational identification. The findings showed that support values predicted both cognitive and affective identification, whereas charismatic leadership was a predictor of affective identification. There was also a significant interaction effect of organisational support values and charismatic leadership on affective identification; in the condition of low support value orientation, charismatic leadership was shown to be positively associated with affective identification. These findings indicate that organisational values are basic elements of self‐implicating processes in organisational contexts, and their practical implications are discussed.
As societies become more multicultural, citizens need to develop self‐regulatory mechanisms in order to successfully cope with the increasing levels of psychosocial stress related to acculturation. In this study, a longitudinal theoretical model was tested in order to evaluate the role of implicit theories of cultural intelligence, causal attributions, perceived social support, and cultural identity as predictors of acculturative stress. The research was carried out in Spain across three consecutive years with a multicultural sample of 292 students (natives and immigrants). The results confirm the proposed theoretical model using multi‐group structural equation modelling to test the equivalence of the longitudinal causal structure in immigrants and natives. Moreover, mediation analyses confirmed the mediating effect of cultural identity between the implicit theories of cultural intelligence and acculturative stress, as well as the mediating effect of perceived social support between causal attributions and acculturative stress. The model indicates the relevance of promoting psychosocial interventions with native and immigrant adolescents in intercultural contexts. In those interventions, it will be relevant to promote incremental implicit theories of cultural intelligence and internal causal attributions, as well as to highlight a more intercultural identity and to encourage greater social support networks.
This diary study examines the impact of daily recovery experiences on daily work–home interference (WHI) and daily burnout symptoms within a group of smartphone users. A total of 69 employees using smartphones on the initiative of their employer completed a diary questionnaire on five successive workdays (N = 293 data points). We hypothesised that particularly for intensive smartphone users it would be important to engage in activities fostering psychological detachment and relaxation in order to reduce the risk of WHI. We predicted that smartphone use would be positively related to WHI. Finally, we predicted that the positive relationship between WHI and state levels of burnout would be stronger for intensive smartphone users. Overall, the results of multi‐level analyses supported these hypotheses. The findings emphasise the importance of a clear organisational policy regarding smartphone use during after‐work hours.
Few studies have examined the relationship between customer injustice and employees' retaliatory counterproductive behaviors toward customers, and those that have done so have been conducted in a Western setting. We extend these studies by examining the relationship in a Singaporean context where retaliatory behaviors by employees might be culturally constrained. While the previously established positive relationship between customer injustice and counterproductive behaviors was not replicated using peer‐reported data from employees across two hotels in Singapore, we found that individuals' self‐efficacy and perceived social support moderated it. Specifically, the injustice‐to‐counterproductive behaviors relationship was positive for individuals with high self‐efficacy, and for those who perceived high levels of supervisor social support. The findings offer insights into when Singaporean employees and, potentially, employees from other Confucian Asian societies will retaliate against customer injustice, and provide practical implications of how managers can help employees cope with customer injustice.
Building on conceptual frameworks of entrepreneurial discovery, we argue that active information search compensates for a lack of entrepreneurial experience and enhances the effects of divergent thinking and general mental ability (GMA) on opportunity identification. We sampled 100 business owners in South Africa. Results confirmed the hypothesised moderating effects of active information search on the relationships of entrepreneurial experience and divergent thinking on opportunity identification. Furthermore, we found direct effects of opportunity identification and conditional indirect effects of divergent thinking on innovativeness of product/service innovations. Our findings suggest that a joint examination of entrepreneurial experience and divergent thinking with active information search helps to better understand opportunity identification.
The moderating role of decision latitude on the relationship between work–family conflict and psychological strain was examined across five countries. It was hypothesised that decision latitude would moderate the relationship more strongly in the individualistic countries (the United States and Canada) than in the collectivistic countries (India, Indonesia, and South Korea). The results supported the hypotheses of this five‐country‐based cross‐national investigation. The implications of the findings for theory and practice in the area of international and cross‐cultural research on work and family conflicts in the organisational context are discussed.
The present study examines individual differences in the relationship between two core concepts of the self‐determination theory (SDT), namely satisfaction with the autonomy, competence, and relatedness need and motivation (autonomous vs. controlled). Based on the values component of SDT we hypothesised at least two different subpopulations with different need satisfaction–motivation patterns. Data from 349 Romanian volunteers revealed that two groups (or subpopulations) of volunteers can be distinguished, supporting our hypothesis. For the first and largest group, the pattern is in line with the SDT assumption that satisfaction of the autonomy and competence need has an effect on the autonomous forms of motivation. This group is in line with people endorsing intrinsic values. The second group of volunteers, however, revealed that satisfaction with the relatedness need links up with the controlled forms of motivation, and satisfaction of autonomy and competence needs does not predict autonomous motivation. This group is expected to favor extrinsic values. Both relationship patterns were further linked to work engagement and intention to quit, in order to shed light on the practical importance of the observed differences.
This study developed and tested a structural model that examined the relationships among parents’ work–family conflict, frustration, non‐supportive parenting behaviors, and children's work centrality. Data were collected from a sample that included undergraduates and their parents. Results of structural equation modeling analyses supported a spillover effect of paternal and maternal work–family conflict on their frustration. Findings also showed that paternal frustration was significantly related to non‐supportive paternal parenting behaviors. However, maternal frustration was not significantly related to non‐supportive maternal parenting behavior. Paternal non‐supportive parenting behavior was significantly and negatively associated with children's work centrality while maternal non‐supportive parenting behavior was not. Implications of the findings are discussed.
The present study investigates the issue of match between job demands and job resources in the prediction of changes in job‐related well‐being outcomes as outlined by the Demand‐Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) model. Job demands, resources, and well‐being outcomes are considered to be multidimensional constructs comprising physical, cognitive, and/or emotional components. The Triple‐Match Principle (TMP) proposes that the strongest, interactive relationships between job demands and resources are observed when demands, resources, and outcomes are based on identical dimensions. This principle was tested using a two‐wave longitudinal panel study among 720 Belgian employees in the technology sector. Analyses were conducted with cross‐lagged structural equation modeling, and results tend to confirm the matching hypothesis. Specifically, the likelihood of finding valid interaction effects was nearly linearly related to the degree of match between demands, resources, and outcomes. Generalisability of the TMP in the technology sector was shown. Practically, findings indicate that enhancing specific, matching, job resources enables employees to deal with corresponding high job demands to improve employee well‐being.
Implicit person theory (IPT) is characterised by the belief that specific attributes of people are generally either more static (i.e. entity beliefs) or more malleable (i.e. incremental beliefs). Within the organisational sciences literature, past IPT research has focused on the impact of managers' IPT beliefs on their own behaviours. The current research advances the extant literature by presenting two empirical studies that assess whether subordinates formulate an impression of their manager's IPT. The results are consistent with subordinates forming such an impression, as subordinates working under the same manager generally agreed on their manager's IPT. Moreover, our results support the convergent validity (e.g. with job satisfaction, turnover intention) and the discriminant validity (e.g. with transformational leadership, subordinates' own IPT perception) of the subordinates' impressions of their manager's IPT. The theoretical and practical implications of the current research, and future directions regarding cross‐cultural differences related to IPT impression, are discussed.
This study adopted social exchange theory to investigate whether work‐to‐family enrichment functioned as a mediator between work support (supervisor support, co‐worker support, and organisational support) and job satisfaction among 543 employees in two cities in China. A series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) supported a 10‐item Work Support Scale measuring supervisor support, co‐worker support, and organisational support. Structural equation modelling (SEM) results showed that work‐to‐family enrichment fully mediated the association of supervisor support and organisational support with job satisfaction. Based on multiple group comparisons, the proposed model fit both genders and family types (single living with extended family vs. married living with family members). The critical ratios for parameter differences indicated that the relationship between work‐to‐family enrichment and job satisfaction was significantly stronger for females than for males. The implications of findings and directions for future research on work–family enrichment are discussed in the paper.
Drawing on the self‐interest and moral virtues perspectives of justice, we examine how self‐esteem and justice orientation as individual difference factors moderate the effects of individual‐targeted and group‐targeted justice on helping behaviors and intention to leave. A scenario‐based study was conducted using a total sample of 624 Japanese undergraduate students. The results highlighted the difference between the moderating roles of self‐esteem and justice orientation. Self‐esteem moderated the effect of individual‐targeted procedural justice on intention to leave such that the effect was stronger when self‐esteem was high. In contrast, justice orientation mainly moderated the effects of group‐targeted procedural and distributive justice on helping behaviors such that the effects were weaker when justice orientation was high. Implications of our findings and future research directions are discussed.
In recent years, emotional intelligence and emotional intelligence measures have been used in a plethora of countries and cultures. This is also the case for the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), highlighting the importance of examining whether the WLEIS is invariant across regions other than the Far Eastern region (China) where it was originally developed. This study investigated the measurement invariance (MI) of the WLEIS scores across two countries, namely Singapore (N= 505) and Belgium (N= 339). Apart from items measuring the factor “use of emotion”, the measurement structure underlying the WLEIS ratings was generally invariant across both countries as there was no departure from MI in terms of factor form and factor loadings. The scalar invariance model (imposing an identical threshold structure) was partially supported. Factor intercorrelations (not involving the factor “use of emotion”) were also identical across countries. These results show promise for the invariance of the WLEIS scores across different countries, yet warn of the non‐invariance of the dimension “use of emotion”. Reducing the motivation‐oriented nature of these items is in order to come to an exact model fit in cross‐cultural comparisons.
Past research adopting a configural approach to organisational commitment has yielded support for differentiated profiles (i.e. different combinations of different levels of commitment components) and for their relationship with attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. The present study aimed to: (a) investigate, in an Italian privatised organisation, the emergence of commitment profiles derived from the combination of affective (AC) and continuance (CC) organisational commitment, following Sinclair and colleagues' conceptualisation (2005); and (b) examine whether these profiles differed in absenteeism, as an objective outcome, job satisfaction, and job performance. Results from cluster analysis supported the presence of four groups (Allied, Free Agents, Trapped, and Complacent). The Allied and the Complacent profiles reported higher job satisfaction. Moreover, the Complacent profile displayed the highest job performance and the Allied showed the lowest level of absenteeism; both were significantly different from the Trapped profile. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Past research has found that interviewers' positive and negative moods could influence their evaluations of applicants. This study extends previous research by examining the moderating roles that interview structure and accountability played in the effects of interviewer moods on interviewer recommendation. Results from 105 interviewers in actual employment interviews for job openings partially support the hypotheses and indicate that the more structured the interview, the weaker the relationship between interviewer negative moods and hiring recommendation. In addition, when the interviewer's perceived accountability was relatively high, the influence of interviewer positive moods on hiring recommendation was minimised.
Using the Job Demands‐Resources model as a theoretical foundation, we explored the relationships among job demands, internal resources, and burnout in a unique population of workers—individuals with hobby‐jobs (i.e. jobs created from a hobby). We examined four job demands (i.e. variety, constraints, time spent on hobby, hobby/job similarity) as antecedents of the three dimensions of burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion, cynicism, professional efficacy) and moderating effects of internal resources (i.e. conscientiousness, emotional stability) on these relationships. We found that all four demands predicted emotional exhaustion. Further, variety and constraints related to cynicism and variety was associated with diminished professional efficacy. Conscientiousness and emotional stability moderated some of these relationships, indicating that these traits may indeed act as internal resources. Our findings suggest that individuals in hobby‐jobs are affected by job demands as in other jobs, but may also face unique demands. Personality traits and behaviors consistent with those traits may help individuals pursuing hobby‐jobs by protecting them from burnout.
We tested whether knowing more about an area where a humanitarian disaster happened would increase willingness to donate to its victims. Knowledge was proposed to have a positive impact on donation proclivity, mediated by greater identification with the victims: The more potential donors know about the victims and their environment, the more are they able to identify with the victims. Identification, in turn, was proposed to positively impact on willingness to donate. Results confirmed these predictions in one correlational study (N= 111), one experimental study (N= 200), and one quasi‐experimental study (N= 100), focusing on the Asian Tsunami of 2004 and the Chinese earthquake of 2008. Theoretical and applied implications of the research findings are discussed.
This study aims to respond to earlier calls to study well‐known concepts, more specifically, job insecurity, in less traditional (i.e. non‐European, non‐US) settings, as well as factors that may mitigate the aversive consequences of job insecurity for employees' work‐related functioning. We investigate (1) the relationship between job insecurity and work engagement and psychological distress, and (2) the moderating role of positive affect in these relationships. Cross‐sectional data from 296 employees in a South African government organisation were used to test the hypotheses. The results showed that job insecurity was negatively related to work engagement and positively to psychological distress. These relationships were buffered by positive affect.
The issue of identity spatialisation lies at the interface between classic theories of social identity in social psychology and the environmental psychology approach in terms of sociospatial identity. This study of adolescents and young adults aimed to identify the influence of belonging to a place on self‐construction according to place of residence in France. Two regions were compared: (a) the French Basque region, where there is high cultural specificity; and (b) Bordeaux region, which is less culture‐specific. Data were collected from 229 adolescents and young adults from these two regions. The feeling of belonging to a region, sociospatial identity, and social identity were estimated using self‐report questionnaires. Results demonstrate the existence of several forms of sociospatial identity. Basques tended to overinvest on the regional level—especially when they spoke the Basque language (Euskara)—whereas the sociospatial identity of Bordeaux inhabitants was multi‐level. Furthermore, the expression of sociospatial identity was age‐dependent. These findings help to define, measure, and interpret the processes and dynamics of identity associated with belonging to different territories.
Opinion leadership as a measure of individual differences describes influential individuals who informally shape the attitudes and behaviors of their peers. It is commonly assumed that the most important source of opinion leadership stems from expert knowledge in their domain of influence. Study 1 (N= 183), however, demonstrates that objective knowledge does not predict opinion leadership unambiguously. Rather, the relationship is moderated by a personality trait measuring stable dispositions for social influence, thus highlighting two different roots of opinion leadership: domain‐specific competencies and domain‐independent traits. Furthermore, Study 2 on N= 185 pairs of acquaintances illustrates that the interaction effect of these two sources on other‐reports of opinion leadership is mediated by the degree of word‐of‐mouth communication.
Drawing from research across various fields of psychology—social, educational, organisational, counseling and clinical psychology—this paper provides an integrative review of the antecedents of interpersonal help‐seeking behavior. Predicated on the Theory of Planned Behavior, the proposed model describes how person, task, and situation factors influence individuals' decision to seek interpersonal help for goal‐directed or instrumental purposes. This paper also contributes to help‐seeking research by (i) adopting a constellation approach to examine how various salient beliefs mediate between these exogenous factors and people's help‐seeking decision and behavior, (ii) providing a multi‐level perspective on help‐seeking behavior, and by (iii) highlighting the moderating role of expectancy in people's decision to seek interpersonal help.
Research on recruitment and employer branding has typically been situated in Western countries with predominantly individualistic cultures. The present study investigates the instrumental‐symbolic framework for studying organisations' image and attraction as an employer in a non‐Western collectivistic culture. In a large nationwide sample of Turkish university students, both instrumental (working conditions) and symbolic image dimensions (competence) were positively related to organisational attractiveness. Moreover, symbolic traits explained significant incremental variance beyond instrumental attributes and accounted for a greater amount of predictable variance. In addition, organisations were better differentiated from each other on the basis of symbolic image dimensions (sincerity and innovativeness) than on the basis of instrumental dimensions (task demands). Overall, these findings provide support for the applicability of the instrumental‐symbolic framework across different countries, cultures, and organisations.
In this paper we argue that reciprocal expertise affirmation—i.e. the mutual recognition by team members that they respect, value, and affirm each other's expertise—is positively related to team performance, but only in teams with high levels of shared expertise perceptions. Moreover, we propose that the joint effects of teams’ reciprocal expertise affirmation and sharedness of expertise perceptions on team performance will be mediated by coordinated action. Data from 226 members of 39 student teams, working on a realistic four‐week business simulation, supported our hypotheses. Our findings highlight the importance of reciprocal expertise affirmation for the effective functioning of work teams.
The large majority of studies on job insecurity have focused upon the individual level. Recent research has also paid some attention to job insecurity at the level of the organisation, referred to as job insecurity climate. This research has shown negative relationships between job insecurity climate and employees' individual job attitudes. Nevertheless, in these studies no attention has been paid to organisational climate strength, in spite of the recommendations formulated in the literature on this topic. In response, this study aims to account for climate strength in the relationship between job insecurity and job attitudes. We hypothesise that climate strength is related to job satisfaction, organisational commitment, work involvement, and organisational trust. Moreover, we hypothesise that the relationship between job insecurity climate and these outcomes may be stronger when there is a strong agreement among employees concerning their job insecurity perceptions compared to when there is a weak agreement (strong versus weak climate strength). Results based on a Spanish sample of 428 employees from 20 organisations largely supported our hypotheses except in the case of work involvement: climate strength was negatively related to job attitudes, and the relationship between job insecurity climate and individual job attitudes was moderated by climate strength.