© International Association of Applied Psychology
Work–life balance has important implications for both personal well‐being and work‐related outcomes. This study investigated gender differences in multisource ratings of work–life balance, based on self‐reports and supervisors' appraisals of 40,921 managers in 36 countries. Based on a combination of theoretical ideas from social role theory (Eagly & Wood, 2012), prior work–life literature, and gender egalitarianism as a cultural dimension related to societal gender roles, the study tested gender egalitarianism as a moderator of cross‐national variations in these gender differences. Based on multilevel (HLM) analyses, results showed more cross‐national variation by ratee gender in supervisors' appraisals than self‐reports, suggesting that supervisors' perceptions reflected greater influence of societal gender stereotypes. Supervisors rated women lower in work–life balance than men in low egalitarian countries, but similar to men in high egalitarian countries, and only appraisals of women varied depending on egalitarian context. Country gender egalitarian values explained the majority of variation in supervisors' appraisals of women's work–life balance, whereas women's self‐reported balance was linked to objective gender inequalities. Taken together, the findings show that supervisors' perceptions of employees' work–life balance differed by ratee gender and country context, with important implications for work–life theory and practical implications for global employers.
A moderated mediation model was developed to explain the variation in the amount of time volunteers dedicate to their chosen voluntary cause. Data from 534 volunteers of an international aid and development agency in the United Kingdom revealed a positive relationship between prosocial values and time spent volunteering. The results also show that volunteer engagement fully mediated the relationship between the value motive and time spent volunteering, and the strength of the mediated effect varied as a function of volunteers' commitment to beneficiaries. These findings provide a new perspective on the link between volunteers' motivation and active participation in volunteer activities. Implications for practice and future research directions are discussed.
The present paper examines cross‐national differences in the utilisation of work–family resources at the organisational level and the relationships between these resources and work‐to‐home interference (WHI) and satisfaction with work–family balance (SWFB) among professional and non‐professional service sector employees in five Western European countries. Further, it explores cross‐national variations in the gap between professionals and non‐professionals with respect to both outcome variables. Professional service sector employees were consistently found to experience higher levels of WHI and lower levels of SWFB. The use of organisational work–family resources differed across welfare state regimes and levels of national gender equality. It was highest in Sweden and the Netherlands and lowest in Portugal. A family‐supportive supervisor and a family‐supportive organisational culture differentially affected WHI of professional and non‐professional workers, with a family‐supportive supervisor being more beneficial to non‐professionals and a family‐supportive organisational culture being more beneficial to professional employees. Finally, the gap between professionals and non‐professionals was also found to vary across countries for WHI but not for SWFB. It was significantly larger in the UK and in Sweden than in the other three countries.
The main purpose of this study is to investigate whether applicants' impression management (IM) tactics indirectly influence hiring recommendations through cognitive mechanisms (i.e. recruiters' perceptions of person–organisation [P–O] fit, person–job [P–J] fit, and person–recruiter [P–R] fit) or affective mechanisms (i.e. recruiters' positive mood) during authentic employment interviews for actual job openings. Participants consisted of 221 applicant–recruiter dyads from 50 companies in Taiwan. The results demonstrated that applicants' self‐focused IM tactics are positively related to recruiter perceptions of P–J fit, which in turn influence hiring recommendations. In addition, applicant other‐focused IM tactics affect hiring recommendations through recruiters' perceptions of P–O fit. Moreover, applicants' non‐verbal IM tactics were positively related to recruiters' positive mood, which in turn affected recruiters' perceptions of P–J fit and P–O fit, thereby affecting hiring recommendations.
This study examines the effect of justice sensitivity on the life satisfaction and job‐seeking behavior of unemployed individuals and considers the likelihood of experiencing long‐term unemployment. We focus on two facets of dispositional justice sensitivity that reflect individual differences in perception and reactions to perpetrating injustice against others (perpetrator sensitivity) or suffering from the injustice of others as an innocent victim (victim sensitivity). We hypothesised that the negative effect of unemployment on life satisfaction is stronger among individuals with higher levels of victim sensitivity and perpetrator sensitivity. The former are more likely to perceive themselves as victims of an unjust situation, such as fate or the employer's decisions, whereas the latter are more likely to perceive themselves as perpetrators against the rules of social justice. Using survey data from approximately 400 participants, we found that unemployed individuals were less satisfied with life than employed individuals and that this relationship was stronger for perpetrator‐sensitive individuals. Unemployed perpetrator‐sensitive individuals were more likely to engage in active job‐seeking behavior and faced a lower likelihood of long‐term unemployment. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of justice‐related personality aspects of unemployed individuals for their well‐being and labor market outcomes.
This meta‐analytic study of 71 independent samples from 66 studies (N = 48,528) examined the relationship between job control and burnout. Based on the Conservation of Resources model, job control was hypothesised to have a stronger relationship with depersonalisation and personal accomplishment than with emotional exhaustion. Overall, results supported the main hypothesis. Moderator analyses indicated that the relations tended to be different depending on job types, the national power distance scores of the samples, and the response formats of the Maslach Burnout Inventory. The results imply that interventions in job control can reduce depersonalisation and enhance personal accomplishment.
The question of whether pay structures should be compressed or dispersed remains unanswered. We argue that pay dispersion can yield uncertainty regarding others' intentions and behaviors; as a result, individuals take a greater risk trusting their group members as pay spreads widen. Accordingly, we explore the conditions under which individuals are more willing to take this risk by viewing their group members as trustworthy even when pay is dispersed. Specifically, preferences for how relationships and resources should be structured in groups should help to determine when pay dispersion relates to trustworthiness perceptions. We hypothesise that the cross‐level interaction between preferences for communal sharing (Level 1)—that is, the extent to which individuals prefer communal, egalitarian structures in their groups—and pay dispersion (Level 2) is associated with trust perceptions. Data drawn from a sample of university professors support our hypothesised cross‐level interaction, and show that when pay dispersion is greater, individuals perceive their group members as more trustworthy only when they have weak preferences for communal sharing. Our results signify the importance of individual attributes to understanding pay dispersion's effects, and show that trust is fostered when preferences and pay conditions are aligned.
Drawing from Conservation of Resources theory, this study examines the hitherto unexplored mediating role of relational conflict in the link between interpersonal justice and commitment to change, as well as how social interaction might moderate this mediating effect. Data were captured from employees directly affected by a large‐scale restructuring in a European‐based organisation. The analyses show that interpersonal justice positively affects commitment to change and that relationship conflict fully mediates the relationship. Further, social interaction moderates both the interpersonal justice–relational conflict and the relational conflict–commitment to change relationships, such that they get invigorated at higher levels of social interaction. The findings also reveal that the indirect effect of interpersonal justice on commitment to change, through relational conflict, is more pronounced at higher levels of social interaction, in support of a moderated mediation effect. These findings have significant implications for research and practice.
We conducted five interlocking studies to develop and validate a family role performance scale that can be used across cultures. In Study 1, we generated scale items based on interviews with individuals representing various family and work structures in the United States and Israel. In Study 2, we surveyed both US and Israeli participants to assess measurement equivalence, dimensionality, and reliability. In Study 3, we refined the items and repeated the exploratory analyses. In Studies 4 and 5, with samples from the United States and Europe, we confirmed the scale dimensionality and established convergent, discriminant, and nomological validity. We contribute to the work‐family literature by providing a valid instrument for assessing performance within the family domain.
We investigated relationships between four dimensions of work–family conflict (time‐ and strain‐based work interference with family, time‐ and strain‐based family interference with work) and three key national paid leave policies (paid parental leave, paid sick leave, paid annual leave) among a sample of 643 working married parents with children under the age of 5 across 12 industrialised nations. Results provided some evidence that paid sick leave has a small but significant negative relationship with work–family conflict. Little evidence was revealed of a link between paid parental leave or of a link between paid annual leave and work–family conflict. Family‐supportive organisational perceptions and family‐supportive supervision were tested as moderators with some evidence to suggest that paid leave policies are most beneficial when employees' perceptions of support are higher than when they are lower. Family‐supportive organisational perceptions and family‐supportive supervision were both associated with less work–family conflict, providing evidence of their potential benefit across national contexts.
This study uses cognitive consistency theory to develop a model linking proactive personality to employees' work outcomes. This model was tested using a sample of 161 subordinate–supervisor dyads. HLM analysis results revealed that organisation‐based self‐esteem fully mediated the relationships between proactive personality and the behaviors of job performance and organisational citizenship behavior‐voice and partially mediated the relationships between proactive personality and the attitudes of job satisfaction and affective organisational commitment. Furthermore, perceived insider status moderated the relationship between proactive personality and organisation‐based self‐esteem in such a way that the relationship was stronger for individuals lower rather than higher in perceived insider status.
This study investigates differences in “dark side” traits between those in the public and private sectors, as well as between managers in three distinct industries. In all, 5,693 British adults were tested, roughly half of whom clearly worked in public sector jobs and half in the private sector. We also tested three groups of people (total 1,102) working in very different sectors: finance, insurance, and emergency services. They all completed the Hogan Development Survey (HDS; Hogan & Hogan, 1997), which is a measure of dysfunctional personality styles or potential management derailers. It has 11 dimensions and three higher order factors. Multivariate and univariate analyses of co‐variance (controlling for sex, age, and social desirability) and logistic regressions showed many significant differences, with private sector employees scoring higher on the factor Moving Against/Cluster B and lower on the factor Moving Away/Cluster A. The analysis of the three groups showed that those in the emergency services differed on most traits while Finance and Insurance industry personnel were very similar.
Research suggests that materialism leads to the dark side of the financial dream. In this study, we treat love of money as a mediator and test a theoretical model's direct path (Materialism to Financial Satisfaction) and indirect path (Materialism to Love of Money to Financial Satisfaction) simultaneously using the whole sample and across several demographic variables based on 1,011 citizens in Spain. Results for the whole sample showed that the positive indirect effect suppressed the negative direct effect creating an overall small positive effect. Furthermore, we found a significant negative direct path for rural dwellers, the 30–44‐year‐old age group, and married people, but a positive indirect path for rural residents, the 45–59‐year‐old age group, married, males, and urban dwellers. Overall, those in the 30–44 age group, rural residents, and married people experienced the dark side of the financial dream, whereas old (over‐60 age group), unmarried, urban, and young people (18–29 age group) enjoyed the bright side of their financial optimism. People's money attitudes and demographic variables play a positive role in our understanding of materialism and financial satisfaction, i.e. the Matthew Effect. Our novel, counterintuitive, and original theoretical, empirical, and practical contributions foster theory development and testing and improved practice.
Unpaid volunteers occupy many roles and provide crucial services in countries around the world. In Australia, for example, volunteers provide emergency response capabilities to most communities outside of major population centres. Despite the valuable function of this volunteer workforce, evidence indicates declining numbers of volunteer emergency service workers, and suggests that interactions between volunteering and family are implicated in falling numbers. The current study considered volunteering as one component of the community microsystem, and examined volunteering‐related Work–Family Conflict (WFC) and Work–Family Facilitation (WFF) in N = 682 Australian volunteer firefighters. Structural equation modelling (SEM) analysis indicated that brigade operational demands had a negative indirect effect on intention to remain through volunteer WFC, as well as a concurrent positive effect on satisfaction. Two volunteering resources were considered (training opportunities and effective leadership), and had positive impacts on volunteer WFF through perceived developmental gain. Although developmental gain had a large positive impact on volunteer satisfaction, volunteer WFF did not. Results indicate that theoretical models of interactions between paid work and family can inform understanding of interactions between voluntary work and family, and thus links between community and family roles. Implications for volunteer emergency services organisations are discussed.
This study set out to investigate how the strength of organisational identification is related to organisational support values and charismatic leadership. The perception of organisational support values by an individual employee is a contextual factor which determines whether (a) organisational attributes similar to the self‐concept become salient leading to cognitive identification, and (b) an affective tie between the individual employee and the work organisation is developed. Charismatic leadership, on the other hand, builds a group identity among followers primarily by emotion‐arousing leadership behavior, and therefore was hypothesised to relate more strongly to affective, rather than cognitive, identification. Two hundred employees from a public organisation filled in a number of questionnaire measures of organisational support values, charismatic leadership, and organisational identification. The findings showed that support values predicted both cognitive and affective identification, whereas charismatic leadership was a predictor of affective identification. There was also a significant interaction effect of organisational support values and charismatic leadership on affective identification; in the condition of low support value orientation, charismatic leadership was shown to be positively associated with affective identification. These findings indicate that organisational values are basic elements of self‐implicating processes in organisational contexts, and their practical implications are discussed.
As societies become more multicultural, citizens need to develop self‐regulatory mechanisms in order to successfully cope with the increasing levels of psychosocial stress related to acculturation. In this study, a longitudinal theoretical model was tested in order to evaluate the role of implicit theories of cultural intelligence, causal attributions, perceived social support, and cultural identity as predictors of acculturative stress. The research was carried out in Spain across three consecutive years with a multicultural sample of 292 students (natives and immigrants). The results confirm the proposed theoretical model using multi‐group structural equation modelling to test the equivalence of the longitudinal causal structure in immigrants and natives. Moreover, mediation analyses confirmed the mediating effect of cultural identity between the implicit theories of cultural intelligence and acculturative stress, as well as the mediating effect of perceived social support between causal attributions and acculturative stress. The model indicates the relevance of promoting psychosocial interventions with native and immigrant adolescents in intercultural contexts. In those interventions, it will be relevant to promote incremental implicit theories of cultural intelligence and internal causal attributions, as well as to highlight a more intercultural identity and to encourage greater social support networks.
This diary study examines the impact of daily recovery experiences on daily work–home interference (WHI) and daily burnout symptoms within a group of smartphone users. A total of 69 employees using smartphones on the initiative of their employer completed a diary questionnaire on five successive workdays (N = 293 data points). We hypothesised that particularly for intensive smartphone users it would be important to engage in activities fostering psychological detachment and relaxation in order to reduce the risk of WHI. We predicted that smartphone use would be positively related to WHI. Finally, we predicted that the positive relationship between WHI and state levels of burnout would be stronger for intensive smartphone users. Overall, the results of multi‐level analyses supported these hypotheses. The findings emphasise the importance of a clear organisational policy regarding smartphone use during after‐work hours.
Few studies have examined the relationship between customer injustice and employees' retaliatory counterproductive behaviors toward customers, and those that have done so have been conducted in a Western setting. We extend these studies by examining the relationship in a Singaporean context where retaliatory behaviors by employees might be culturally constrained. While the previously established positive relationship between customer injustice and counterproductive behaviors was not replicated using peer‐reported data from employees across two hotels in Singapore, we found that individuals' self‐efficacy and perceived social support moderated it. Specifically, the injustice‐to‐counterproductive behaviors relationship was positive for individuals with high self‐efficacy, and for those who perceived high levels of supervisor social support. The findings offer insights into when Singaporean employees and, potentially, employees from other Confucian Asian societies will retaliate against customer injustice, and provide practical implications of how managers can help employees cope with customer injustice.
Building on conceptual frameworks of entrepreneurial discovery, we argue that active information search compensates for a lack of entrepreneurial experience and enhances the effects of divergent thinking and general mental ability (GMA) on opportunity identification. We sampled 100 business owners in South Africa. Results confirmed the hypothesised moderating effects of active information search on the relationships of entrepreneurial experience and divergent thinking on opportunity identification. Furthermore, we found direct effects of opportunity identification and conditional indirect effects of divergent thinking on innovativeness of product/service innovations. Our findings suggest that a joint examination of entrepreneurial experience and divergent thinking with active information search helps to better understand opportunity identification.
The moderating role of decision latitude on the relationship between work–family conflict and psychological strain was examined across five countries. It was hypothesised that decision latitude would moderate the relationship more strongly in the individualistic countries (the United States and Canada) than in the collectivistic countries (India, Indonesia, and South Korea). The results supported the hypotheses of this five‐country‐based cross‐national investigation. The implications of the findings for theory and practice in the area of international and cross‐cultural research on work and family conflicts in the organisational context are discussed.
The present study examines individual differences in the relationship between two core concepts of the self‐determination theory (SDT), namely satisfaction with the autonomy, competence, and relatedness need and motivation (autonomous vs. controlled). Based on the values component of SDT we hypothesised at least two different subpopulations with different need satisfaction–motivation patterns. Data from 349 Romanian volunteers revealed that two groups (or subpopulations) of volunteers can be distinguished, supporting our hypothesis. For the first and largest group, the pattern is in line with the SDT assumption that satisfaction of the autonomy and competence need has an effect on the autonomous forms of motivation. This group is in line with people endorsing intrinsic values. The second group of volunteers, however, revealed that satisfaction with the relatedness need links up with the controlled forms of motivation, and satisfaction of autonomy and competence needs does not predict autonomous motivation. This group is expected to favor extrinsic values. Both relationship patterns were further linked to work engagement and intention to quit, in order to shed light on the practical importance of the observed differences.
This study developed and tested a structural model that examined the relationships among parents’ work–family conflict, frustration, non‐supportive parenting behaviors, and children's work centrality. Data were collected from a sample that included undergraduates and their parents. Results of structural equation modeling analyses supported a spillover effect of paternal and maternal work–family conflict on their frustration. Findings also showed that paternal frustration was significantly related to non‐supportive paternal parenting behaviors. However, maternal frustration was not significantly related to non‐supportive maternal parenting behavior. Paternal non‐supportive parenting behavior was significantly and negatively associated with children's work centrality while maternal non‐supportive parenting behavior was not. Implications of the findings are discussed.
The present study investigates the issue of match between job demands and job resources in the prediction of changes in job‐related well‐being outcomes as outlined by the Demand‐Induced Strain Compensation (DISC) model. Job demands, resources, and well‐being outcomes are considered to be multidimensional constructs comprising physical, cognitive, and/or emotional components. The Triple‐Match Principle (TMP) proposes that the strongest, interactive relationships between job demands and resources are observed when demands, resources, and outcomes are based on identical dimensions. This principle was tested using a two‐wave longitudinal panel study among 720 Belgian employees in the technology sector. Analyses were conducted with cross‐lagged structural equation modeling, and results tend to confirm the matching hypothesis. Specifically, the likelihood of finding valid interaction effects was nearly linearly related to the degree of match between demands, resources, and outcomes. Generalisability of the TMP in the technology sector was shown. Practically, findings indicate that enhancing specific, matching, job resources enables employees to deal with corresponding high job demands to improve employee well‐being.
Implicit person theory (IPT) is characterised by the belief that specific attributes of people are generally either more static (i.e. entity beliefs) or more malleable (i.e. incremental beliefs). Within the organisational sciences literature, past IPT research has focused on the impact of managers' IPT beliefs on their own behaviours. The current research advances the extant literature by presenting two empirical studies that assess whether subordinates formulate an impression of their manager's IPT. The results are consistent with subordinates forming such an impression, as subordinates working under the same manager generally agreed on their manager's IPT. Moreover, our results support the convergent validity (e.g. with job satisfaction, turnover intention) and the discriminant validity (e.g. with transformational leadership, subordinates' own IPT perception) of the subordinates' impressions of their manager's IPT. The theoretical and practical implications of the current research, and future directions regarding cross‐cultural differences related to IPT impression, are discussed.
This study adopted social exchange theory to investigate whether work‐to‐family enrichment functioned as a mediator between work support (supervisor support, co‐worker support, and organisational support) and job satisfaction among 543 employees in two cities in China. A series of confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) supported a 10‐item Work Support Scale measuring supervisor support, co‐worker support, and organisational support. Structural equation modelling (SEM) results showed that work‐to‐family enrichment fully mediated the association of supervisor support and organisational support with job satisfaction. Based on multiple group comparisons, the proposed model fit both genders and family types (single living with extended family vs. married living with family members). The critical ratios for parameter differences indicated that the relationship between work‐to‐family enrichment and job satisfaction was significantly stronger for females than for males. The implications of findings and directions for future research on work–family enrichment are discussed in the paper.
Drawing on the self‐interest and moral virtues perspectives of justice, we examine how self‐esteem and justice orientation as individual difference factors moderate the effects of individual‐targeted and group‐targeted justice on helping behaviors and intention to leave. A scenario‐based study was conducted using a total sample of 624 Japanese undergraduate students. The results highlighted the difference between the moderating roles of self‐esteem and justice orientation. Self‐esteem moderated the effect of individual‐targeted procedural justice on intention to leave such that the effect was stronger when self‐esteem was high. In contrast, justice orientation mainly moderated the effects of group‐targeted procedural and distributive justice on helping behaviors such that the effects were weaker when justice orientation was high. Implications of our findings and future research directions are discussed.
In recent years, emotional intelligence and emotional intelligence measures have been used in a plethora of countries and cultures. This is also the case for the Wong and Law Emotional Intelligence Scale (WLEIS), highlighting the importance of examining whether the WLEIS is invariant across regions other than the Far Eastern region (China) where it was originally developed. This study investigated the measurement invariance (MI) of the WLEIS scores across two countries, namely Singapore (N= 505) and Belgium (N= 339). Apart from items measuring the factor “use of emotion”, the measurement structure underlying the WLEIS ratings was generally invariant across both countries as there was no departure from MI in terms of factor form and factor loadings. The scalar invariance model (imposing an identical threshold structure) was partially supported. Factor intercorrelations (not involving the factor “use of emotion”) were also identical across countries. These results show promise for the invariance of the WLEIS scores across different countries, yet warn of the non‐invariance of the dimension “use of emotion”. Reducing the motivation‐oriented nature of these items is in order to come to an exact model fit in cross‐cultural comparisons.
Past research adopting a configural approach to organisational commitment has yielded support for differentiated profiles (i.e. different combinations of different levels of commitment components) and for their relationship with attitudinal and behavioral outcomes. The present study aimed to: (a) investigate, in an Italian privatised organisation, the emergence of commitment profiles derived from the combination of affective (AC) and continuance (CC) organisational commitment, following Sinclair and colleagues' conceptualisation (2005); and (b) examine whether these profiles differed in absenteeism, as an objective outcome, job satisfaction, and job performance. Results from cluster analysis supported the presence of four groups (Allied, Free Agents, Trapped, and Complacent). The Allied and the Complacent profiles reported higher job satisfaction. Moreover, the Complacent profile displayed the highest job performance and the Allied showed the lowest level of absenteeism; both were significantly different from the Trapped profile. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Past research has found that interviewers' positive and negative moods could influence their evaluations of applicants. This study extends previous research by examining the moderating roles that interview structure and accountability played in the effects of interviewer moods on interviewer recommendation. Results from 105 interviewers in actual employment interviews for job openings partially support the hypotheses and indicate that the more structured the interview, the weaker the relationship between interviewer negative moods and hiring recommendation. In addition, when the interviewer's perceived accountability was relatively high, the influence of interviewer positive moods on hiring recommendation was minimised.
Using the Job Demands‐Resources model as a theoretical foundation, we explored the relationships among job demands, internal resources, and burnout in a unique population of workers—individuals with hobby‐jobs (i.e. jobs created from a hobby). We examined four job demands (i.e. variety, constraints, time spent on hobby, hobby/job similarity) as antecedents of the three dimensions of burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion, cynicism, professional efficacy) and moderating effects of internal resources (i.e. conscientiousness, emotional stability) on these relationships. We found that all four demands predicted emotional exhaustion. Further, variety and constraints related to cynicism and variety was associated with diminished professional efficacy. Conscientiousness and emotional stability moderated some of these relationships, indicating that these traits may indeed act as internal resources. Our findings suggest that individuals in hobby‐jobs are affected by job demands as in other jobs, but may also face unique demands. Personality traits and behaviors consistent with those traits may help individuals pursuing hobby‐jobs by protecting them from burnout.