Secretary General’s Report


This report includes the draft minutes of the EC meeting held in July last year in Stockholm

Third Draft of the Minutes of the Meeting of the Executive Committee held in Stockholm July 22-23, 2000

(Corrections and suggestions are welcome).


Meeting of the Executive Committee of IAAP held in Stockholm on Saturday July 22nd and Sunday 23rd July 2000 at the Hotel Radisson SAS Royal Viking.


 Members present: 

Adair John, Berry John, Bonnes Mirilia, Carpintero Helio, Dachler Peter, Drenth Pieter, J.D.,  Erez Miriam,  Fiedler Fred, Fleishman Edwin, Fowler Raymond, Frese Michael, Gärling Tommy, Georgas James, Johansson Gunn, Leonova Anna, Lunt Ingrid, Machiko Fukuhara, Merenda Peter, Mohan Jitendra, Nair Elizabeth, Pick Susan,  Poortinga Ype, Porter Lyman, Prieto José M., Roberts Glynn, Spielberger Charles D., Tikkanen Tuomo,  Triandis Harry C., Velichovsky Boris, Heller Frank, Williams Allan, Wilpert Bernhard, Zhang Kan.



Bond Michael, Tan Vicky



Avolio B., Balagué G., Culbertson F., Fernández Ballesteros R., Groeger, J., Stevan Hobfoll,  Kanungo R.N., Kim U., Knowles M.,  Malpass R., Matarazzo J., Morgan R., Munene J., Nsamenang A.B., Sánchez E., Thorne C.


Special cases

Gabriel Moser, from France, was not informed about the site and contents of EC meeting, because by mistake his email address was not included in the mailing list of EC members after the EC meeting held in SF (1998) but has been included after the EC meeting in Stockholm (2000). Dina Krauskopf, from Costa Rica, resigned in 1999.


1. President’s Welcome

The President, Charles D. Spielberger opened the meeting at 09:00 and, after a few comments concerning the agenda and the procedure to follow, warmly welcomed all the EC members present in the room and invited them to introduce themselves. Especially mentioned Helio Carpintero (Member of the Spanish Academy of Social Sciences), Pieter Drenth (President European Academy of Sciences), Susan Pick (President of the Interamerican Psychological Society), and Tuomo Tikkanen (President of the European Federation of Professional Psychologists Associations).


2. Minutes of San Francisco EC meeting

The minutes of the EC meeting held in San Francisco August 8-9, 1998 were approved. It was requested to add the name of Xu Lian Kang, from China, who was present.


3. President’s report

Charles Spielberger, introduced a broad overview of the achievements of the last two years, stressing some landmarks such as the improvement of the quality of good will relationships with the IUPsyS (annual meetings among officers held in Rome –1999- and Bruge –2000-) and the Interamerican Psychological Society (meetings held in SF-1998- and in Caracas -1999-).  He also highlighted the transfer of the historical archives to the University of Passau, after the bilateral agreement signed in February and May 2000 respectively in the US and Germany. It will now be under the direct control of Prof. W. Schweitzer and the supervision of Helio Carpintero and Peter Merenda. He praised the success of the ARTS, organized around congresses held in San Francisco and in Stockholm under the leadership of John Adair. The EC members present seconded the congratulations to Adair and praised his efficiency.  

Past or present divisional presidents were invited to send documents concerning the respective divisions to Passau University, following a suggestion by Pieter Drenth. Peter Merenda and Pino Fumai will gather and send to Passau University documents and photographs of the ICAP held in Rome, and will try to find the photos and the discourse made by the Pope during the reception in the Vatican.  Peter Merenda emphasised the importance of also improving relationships with the ICP where he could play a mediating role. Pieter Drenth suggested an improvement of the IAAP proactive presence in the ISSC. The EC members backed the motion advanced:  Michael Frese, as president elect, will be in charge of the initiatives and the involvement in such a forum.


4. Secretary General’s report

The text had been distributed several weeks before and so the SG summarized the main aspects such as the problems with the renewal forms sent by Blackwell, the unexpected change in the currency used in the receipts (from US$ to GBP), the online renewal form in Blackwell’s homepage. He made clear that the situation had been under control since March and the decline in members seen in January-February had been reversed with numbers starting to grow in April. Six of 14 divisions sponsor a WWW homepage under the initiative of each division and without formal financial support. He suggested that this situation should be proposed in the near future, since online costs are lower than those of printing and distributing documents as has been done previously. The IAAP directory is available online, also at no cost. IAAP brochures were distributed free during the Congresses held in 1999 in Rome, Durban and Caracas. The only firm bid for the 2006 ICAP was that backed by the Greek Psychological Society, to hold the congress in Athens. It was the winner bid in SF and the visit of inspection was still pending because of difficulties in fixing dates for the officers’ agenda. He informed that the Hungarian Psychological Society sent a letter declining their past interest in promoting a congress for the 2006.   The EC members approved the report.

The electronic version of documents sent in advance and circulated during the meeting may be found at and the SG invited those who submitted new documents during the meeting to send the corresponding electronic file to make it available online.



5. Treasurer’s and Finance Committee reports

Ray Fowler commented on the balance of the year 1999 and the draft budgets for the year 2000 and 2001 based on some assumptions specified in the document circulated in advance. He showed his concern about the delicate financial situation of the IAAP with the data summarized in the following table.





Profit or (Loss)


Profit or (Loss)


32,924 US$


(4,284) US$


  6,178 US$


5,319 US$


(18,595) US$


(8,546) US$


  6,178  US$


(6,850) US$

Years 2000 to 2002 are estimates


(3,850) US$




The highest profit occurred in 1994; this was a direct consequence of the application of the criterion of obligatory membership during the ICAP in Madrid and the transfer of money for new members. The highest loss occurred in 1996 because the number of members declined drastically and running costs increased. For the period 2000-2002 the estimates are, again, negative unless the IAAP rapidly  increases the number of paying members and updates the dues structure.  “If we do not succeed we will be dipping into our reserves. If we begin spending more than we take in, it will be virtually impossible to stop and in a few years we could be facing an empty treasury.  I think our first priority must be to preserve IAAP for future generations, and we must be a little worried from now to our next EC meeting in Singapore”.


Allan Williams, chairman of the Finance Committee, (which also included Ype Poortinga and Lyman Porter) reported that the details of the accounts and balances for 1999 “have been found in order” as well as the accounts projected for 2000 and the budget for 2001. Rita Claes, past treasurer, submitted the accounts for 1998, because it was decided in San Francisco to pass the treasurership at the beginning of the year 1999.  The 1998 accounts and balance were also in order. The Finance Committee acknowledged that after an analysis of all the financial transactions  “a true and accurate record of the accounts has been kept”.  The EC members accepted the favourable report from the Finance Committee and approved both the balance of 1998 and 1999 and the draft budgets for 2000 and 2001.

The Finance Committee drew the following observations to the attention of the EC members:

A draft motion for changing the rules of procedure concerning the Finance Committee was submitted and accepted by the EC members. The main argument was that “this is an economical and sufficient procedure, proven in its validity by past experience, to entrust the Finance Committee with these control tasks”. The approved rules read as follows:


“The Finance Committee is appointed by the Executive Committee and shall be responsible for reviewing the financial reports of the Treasurer, the verification and control of the system of accounting, and for presenting at each congress to the Executive Committee and to the members of the Association present in the General Meeting, a report on the Association’s financial position”.


Ray Fowler, backed by the Finance Committee, proposed a new dues structure for the years 2001 and 2002 that was approved, after some discussion, unanimously. The membership dues for 2003 will be fixed in Singapore but an advance of what should be done was also accepted.




2001 and 2002


Standard Dues

60 US$

75 US$

Reduced Dues

40 US$

50 US$

Subsidized Dues

20 US$

25 US$




The subsidized dues are intended a) for members living in a nation with a developing economy, b) for members whose income is less than 25,000 US$ (but they should request this status), and for students.

The reduced dues are intended for members who would have difficulty paying standard dues and whose total annual income is less than 50,000 US$.   They cover only the running costs of the journal and the newsletter.

The standard dues are intended for all members. They cover the running costs of the association and subsidize the membership of colleagues from low-GNP countries. There must be a critical balance between the standard and the subsidized dues.

The possibility of paying on a multiyear basis was studied and approved, starting with the new dues structure in 2001. The great advantage is that it will allow some colleagues to pay two, three or fours years in a single transfer of money avoiding bank commissions often more expensive that the dues paid. Blackwell’s staff has endorsed the feasibility of this measure.

The issue of members who have retired was also studied and it was considered appropriate that they choose the relevant category taking into account their retirement pensions. The name of Prof. Bertil Mardberg was mentioned as the right person who has contact with colleagues who are already retired and continue participating in international congresses to get feedback from these senior members. The SG will keep in touch with him and share suggestions with officers.   

Exceptions on dues will be dealt with by the President or Secretary General 


6. Reports of the Standing Committees


6.1. Recruitment drives.

It was agreed that each divisional President should examine in which countries the division is strong or weak and what can be done to increase the number of members of this particular division.

It was agreed to come back again to a membership drive 1 plus 1 in which we asked each member to recruit one more member. However it became clear that such approach is not enough and EC plus 20 drive was considered more appropriate. That is, all EC-members are asked to get about 20 additional members into the association each year in which they are EC-members.

It was considered useful to make a list identifying key persons in departments of applied psychology or in departments of psychology, which have applied areas. Key members of these departments will be contacted and invited individually to become members of our association. This should be done in different countries and across the different sub-disciplines of psychology for which we have divisions. The officers will decide if the individual letters would be sent either by the President of the IAAP or by the Division President or by the EC-member who has suggested this person. Another possibility considered was creating the category of Fellow Members as the following motion was resolved positively by a large majority of EC members.


“Whereas many distinguished psychologists around the world have made outstanding scientific and professional contributions to Applied Psychology, and whereas, IAAP is the primary international organization of applied psychology and whereas, it is appropriate for IAAP to recognize international psychologists for their contribution. Therefore, the Executive Committee of IAAP creates a special category of members to recognize outstanding contributions to applied psychology. Individuals so recognized shall be called fellows of IAAP. These fellows may be current members of IAAP. In addition, outstanding psychologists who are not currently members of IAAP may be invited to join as Full members with Fellow status. To identify psychologists appropriate for fellow status, the Executive Committee authorizes the President to appoint a fellows committee, consisting of Officers of the Association and other members as needed to carry out the functions of the Committee. Psychologists nominated by the Fellows Committee and approved by the President shall be designated as Fellows of the Association and appropriate methods of recognizing this honour, such as a certificate and public announcements, shall be devised by the Fellows Committee. The Fellows Committee shall seek nominations from IAAP Divisional Presidents and from other sources they deem appropriate”. 


It was agreed also to launch a particular effort to increase the number of graduate student members. A critical issue seems to be how to reach them, via departments or via national associations of psychology. EC members will be invited to suggest how to proceed in their respective countries.  The subsidized dues of 20 US$ are open to them.      Booths at the major international congresses will be continued. They are an important vehicle for establishing immediate personal contact with psychologists many of whom have little knowledge of  IAAP or have not had an application form. In this respect, the presence of members of the EC at these booths is essential in that they have the opportunity to personally explain the goals of IAAP to potential members. So this initiative will be maintained at the next International and Regional and National congresses where the IAAP is co-sponsor. Also IAAP brochures will be produced and distributed all around through EC members as well as through activities and journals sponsored or co-sponsored by divisions. At no cost to the IAAP,  IAAP brochures will also be included in the congress pack of attendees to congresses sponsored or co-sponsored by the IAAP. This must be a basic item in the agreements signed with psychological organizations. The Newsletter may be used also as an adequate channel toward encouraging IAAP members to recruit members. Copies of the Newsletter may be also distributed in the booths or in the congress pack to promote the IAAP.


The editor of Applied Psychology: an International Review will send a flyer of the IAAP to authors submitting papers informing them in a paragraph a) that this is a sound scientific journal sponsored by a non-profit-making organization, b) that the number of issues and the amount of pages per year depends on the membership of the organization, c) that this organization sponsors the annual distribution of 100 copies of the journal to institutions and colleagues in low-GNP countries, and will invite them to become members. The suggestion would be that at least one of the co-authors should be a member, though there would not be actual restrictions. This is a scientific journal, and so open to the scientific communities and not a bulletin for “only-members”. In a similar vein, it will be appropriate to insist on members of the Editorial Board being members of the Association, but again, this is a scientific journal and not a bulletin supervised only by members.      

The online registration forms available at the web of the IAAP and of Blackwells  must be continued, introducing adequate controls to guarantee confidentiality and to avoid errors in the exchange of messages between servers.  Michael Frese, Ingrid Lunt and Jose M. Prieto will plan actions and oversee progress in these issues.


6.2. Action 100

It was accepted that those people who have been participants of Action 100 in the past years should now be asked to become paying members in the reduced or the subsidized dues category. A letter, signed by the President or the Secretary General, will send by Blackwell to them informing them about this decision.

It was accepted that providing the journal and newsletter directly to individual members of Action 100 is not as effective as providing the journal and newsletter to libraries or departments of psychology, to leading figures in national associations from low-GNP countries, and to organizations of psychology students. It was decided to prioritize membership in Action 100 to institutional rather than individual applications. 


6.3. Transition from Psychology Press to Blackwells

Michael Frese, Ingrid Lunt, Paula O’Connor and José M. Prieto stated that procedures had been put in place to deal with the difficulties of the first three months of the year 2000 which had led to a number of errors and misunderstandings between the IAAP and Blackwells during this period. The problems were mainly over the membership renewal process and the letter and invoices sent to the members as well as the online renewal procedures. Things seem to be under control after May 2000;  the above mentioned persons were entrusted with the task of doing the follow-up, analysing problems and making decisions.


6.4. Report on IAAP’s relationships with international associations.

Charles Spielberger reported about the state of co-operation between the IAAP and the IUPsyS, accentuating the ongoing co-operative activities. Conventionally this co-operation has concerned the co-ordination of sites and dates of International Congresses sponsored  by each organization. A recent agreement has been to ensure that the host organization of an ICP or an ICAP will always provide the other organization with one free promotional booth in the congress exhibition area, as well as complimentary rooms at the congress site for EC and Officers meetings, and program time for symposia sponsored by the organization. Regional Congresses have also been jointly planned in areas of the world where psychologists usually find it difficult to participate in international congresses due to economic restrictions. The Advanced Research Training Seminars is another initiative intended to offer training to colleagues from economically less developed regions present in the city or surroundings where the next ICP or ICAP will be held. Another initiative is the World Forum of International Psychological Associations intended to provide an opportunity for the international or regional leaders of specialized associations to freely exchange views on the needs of psychological organizations around the world and the possibilities of concerted actions. An outcome is a Directory of International Psychological Associations and the forum will be held at each future international congress. In the IAAP, Bernhard Wilpert is the person in charge of the Forum planning and promotion.  Future co-operation is intended to deal with a) working with international bodies, b) ad hoc co-operation in response to critical incidents, c) co-operation of IAAP divisions with ongoing IUPsyS activities, d) collaboration between SG to better determine needs, e) further development of the World Forum, f) development of international psychological directories, online and offline, g) conduct of joint world survey of psychology.


Susan Pick, both in her role as EC member and president of the Interamerican Psychological Society (SIP) informed about the contacts and agreements reached between both organizations. The main one concerns the issue that future regional congresses must be avoided in Latin America since this is a region where there is an international congress held every two years under the sponsorship of the SIP and there is no need to organize a parallel and competing convention. The second agreement concerns the co-sponsorship of SIP’s congress by the IAAP in such a way that the officers or the divisional presidents may propose and back symposia, workshops and keynote addresses, by using formal communication channels between both organizations. The prospect of some financial involvement of the IAAP in SIP’s activities was set aside.  However, an effort will be made to increase the participation of people from Latin American countries in the ARTS. The critical issue seems to be the fluency in English of potential candidates.  


Tuomo Tikannen, both in his role as EC member and president of the European Federation of Professional Psychologists Associations (EFPPA) informed about the contacts and agreements reached between both organizations. The main issue concerns the involvement of the IAAP co-sponsoring the series of ECP where proposals of symposia, workshops and keynote addresses are welcome. There is no need to organize regional congresses of Psychology in Europe since a EFPPA already tries to keep a balance in the distribution of congress sites every two years, moving in all directions according to the bids submitted by national associations. The EFFPA is in the process of taking concrete actions to make more room for the needs of academic psychology, and understanding “professional” as a word that refers to the whole range of functions. Exchanges of views and possibilities have been analysed with IAAP officers.  The idea of a Psychologists’ Day is growing up in several European countries as a tool for giving Psychology more visibility. It may be convenient to think about and reach an agreement to fix such a day at the international level.


Michael Frese informed about the desirability of attaining the direct status of a NGO with the UN. It will mean an initial estimate of 3,000 US$ per year. At least the expenses of the lobbyist should be also reimbursed, and another unspecified amount should be budgeted.  It was mentioned that, already, the IAAP is an affiliate member of the International Social Science Council (ISSC) and, so indirectly, of the UN. The contribution is 300 US$ per year.  The pros and cons were discussed, and it was decided to start the procedure to gain recognition, and afterwards estimate the annual amount of money to be included in the budget of 2001 or 2002. It will be necessary to create a small committee, mainly divisional presidents, to involve them in these kind of initiatives with the UN,  UNESCO,  WHO,  ILO, the World Bank. The critical issue is that the IAAP cannot cover these costs with the present annual budget and it may need to spend money from past years’ reserves. The treasurer and the officers will study the consequences of an increase of the involvement of the IAAP in international policy bodies.


Bernhard Wilpert informed about the World Forum of International Associations in Psychology and announced the contents of the meeting scheduled during the congress and mentioned the associations that were invited to participate. The EC members backed this initiative and congratulated Bernhard for the progress made.


7. Publications committees report


Michael Frese, as head of the publication committee asked Miriam Erez to first present the state of APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY: AN INTERNATIONAL REVIEW. As editor, Miriam Erez presented statistical data about the papers published in AP:IR during the period 1998-2000. That is distribution by countries, by conceptual area, number of manuscripts (121), average delays from reception to publication (130 days), rate of acceptance (54%), and transactions of reviewers.  The index of impact factor has increased to 0.978 in 1999 and rose through the ranks to post 16 out of 50 among Social Sciences Journals. In 1997 the impact factor was 0.6 and the rank was 25 out of 50. The EC members congratulated Miriam Erez for the progress and good job done. She announced that Shalom H. Schwart, has been nominated by the editorial board members of AP:IR for the best paper award for his contribution on “A theory of cultural values and some implications for work”. It is an award of 300 US$ and EC members backed the nomination and forwarded the congratulations to the author for his excellent achievement.   

Ingrid Lunt informed about recent developments in the Newsletter, the kind of contributions received, the frequency, the lack of reports from divisions, the difficulties in getting enough manuscripts. She introduced the idea of adding a third issue of the Newsletter, and after some discussions it was approved. The SG mentioned that an electronic version of the Newsletter was produced as soon as the file was received, at no cost. So a printed and an online version were now the standard for the IAAP.


Michael Frese and Ingrid Lunt introduced the proposal of producing an Internet Journal, The Graduate Applied Psychologist, and asking for an amount of 3,000 US$ to launch this project. The idea was not voted and it was suggested to add a section or column in the Newsletter devoted to the Graduate Applied Psychologist.


 Charles Spielberger and George Zimmer commented the project of an Encyclopedia of Applied Psychology as a major intellectual undertaking to be backed by the IAAP. The involvement of EC members and leading figures of divisions was requested to suggest topics and potential authors, to facilitate fax numbers or email addresses. The editor in chief will be Prof. Spielberger. The EC members acknowledged the initiative, seconded the formal sponsorship of the IAAP to this Encyclopedia and accepted to facilitate the information available in our database to suggest and contact contributors and to appeal to a wide audience of scholars, professionals and students active or interested in Applied Psychology issues. There will be a close correspondence between the divisional structure of the IAAP and the structure of the Encyclopedia by areas of expertise.


8. Reports from Task Forces

Peter Merenda and Helio Carpintero summarized activities carried out by the members of the task force on the History of the IAAP, such as the creation of the archive unit at Passau, the edition of the proceedings of the 1st to 13rd ICAP, the organization of symposia on the History of Applied Psychology in international or regional congresses of Psychology accumulating data, documents and authors for a future book on the subject. 

Helio Carpintero also summarized ideas and suggestions reported by the task force on the Teaching of Psychology. They recommended the creation of a task force to study the teaching of psychology paying attention to course contents, reading lists and practical exercises.  Also the professional placement or the practicum in the different programs of applied psychology should be also studied.  The main outcome should be writing a set of recommendations that should be backed by the IAAP and the IUPsyS and forwarded to national associations as well as to University Departments or Institutes of Psychology.  During the last decade in many countries, once the university degree in psychology has been formally regulated, a large number of diplomas and specialties have been created where opportunism seems to prevail over actual expertise and rigour in the field. The IAAP should favour the follow up of psychological specialties and diplomas that are directly related to divisions to generate a set of minimum standards or a reference model as has been the case in Work and Organizational Psychology ( ) where some leading members of Division 1 have played a leading role. The EC members backed these recommendations.


Harry Triandis reported on the task force on Psychology in Low Income Countries. The President Elect of the IAAP should chair this task force because in this way he or she will be in the best position to implement the recommendations during his or her term. Organizers of IAAP congresses should devote about 7.5% of the budget to travel for psychologists from low-income countries. Support to the ARTS must continue. The editor of AP:IR should pay attention to the published papers rate of authors from low-Income countries. The recommendations were supported and the officers must negotiate with congress organizers the percentage of ICAP budgets since the number of bids is scarce,  the final balance is usually in the red and the economic conditions fluctuate among national associations backing the organization of congresses.


 John Adair reported on the three ARTS held in Stockholm: a) Imaging the structure and function of the brain, b) Psychological test adaptation to diverse cultures, c) Pathways across development: cross cultural perspectives.  He also informed about the advertising procedures, the funding system, the selection of participants, the financial support to participant and the evaluation of seminars. Several EC members praised how John Adair dealt with these program dilemmas and challenges very effectively.


Fred Fiedler commented the evaluation made by attendees to the IAAP congress in San Francisco, by e-mailing an electronically scorable survey. This could be considered a pilot test for future ICAP. 599 attendees responded with a response rate of  57%.  The SF congress was almost exclusively a meeting of scholars (78%). This is a point of concern because the large majority of applied psychologists are practitioners in public or private setting and they have been conspicuously absent in the event. This is an aspect that the organizers of the ICAP in Singapore need to keep in mind to adjust the adequate strategy or to fix the focus in the advertising process. The critical issue is to find the message that will attract practitioners to our ICAP. There is a need to move beyond the academic limits.   Another finding appeared: combining the APA and the IAAP congresses was a mistake.  Here are other suggestions that emerged for the organizers of future ICAP:


Frank Heller and Pieter Drenth reported on the “Innovative Research Methodologies” task force and proposed that this workgroup reports more extensively to the EC in Singapore and the organizers of the Singapore Congress give a workshop or symposium on this topic a degree of priority. The EC members backed this proposal.  Bernhard Wilpert and Ingrid Lunt briefly commented on the World Study of Applied Psychology and informed that the Newsletter will be the channel used to share interim reports with IAAP members.


9. Divisional activities

Miriam Erez commented briefly her report on the activities held by Division 1, Organizational Psychology. That is, a) to develop linkages with other Associations of Organizational Psychology; b) to start and develop a divisional website that can be reached at

 ; c) to disseminate information concerning the division and IAAP in general, d) to open up potential channels of communication, e) to prepare the Academic program for the upcoming congress in 2002 and d) to increase the membership enrollment.


Uichol Kim, president of Division 3, (Psychology and National development) had produced a long report raising the issue of the rising cost of attending international conferences and several recommendations for lowering the barriers for scholars from economically developing countries in attending ICAP. Many EC members had read the document and followed the discussion online and showed their interest in approaching and analyzing the pros and cons of different courses of action mentioned in the report. However he was not present and the discussion of his report was postponed to EC meeting in Singapore.


Tommy Garling, president of Division 4, commented briefly his report on the activities held on Environmental Psychology. That is a) creating and maintaining a division homepage,  b) submitting reports to the Newsletter, c) maintaining a mailing and discussion lists with division members, d) establishing a relationship with the Journal of Environmental Psychology, e) increasing contacts with other organizations and launching strategies to increase the membership enrollment.    </DIV>

 No other reports had been circulated in advance or distributed in the meeting room and, so, no further discussion followed on divisional activities.


10. Congresses and conferences

24th ICAP. Ray Fowler commented briefly the landmarks of the 24 ICAP held in San Francisco August 9-11, 1998. By the end, 2,210 registered participants attended the Congress from 72 countries. Of the registrants, 1,598 individuals registered in advance of the Congress. About a third (711) of the registrants were from the United States. In total, 1,964 people participated one or more times in the scientific program. The program consisted of 186 invited presentations (mainly individual addresses and symposia), 1,104 submitted presentations (mainly paper and poster sessions and symposia), and 37 "other" sessions (business meetings and social hours). The Congress exhibit area featured 36 booths. US$ 100,000 was set aside from the Congress budget to provide scholarships for participants from the developing world and transitioning economies. Up to $16,000 of this fund was reserved for scholarship waivers for participants in the ARTS program.  95 scholarships were awarded, ranging from Congress registration waivers to cash awards up to $2,000. The registration income resulted in a US$ 421,000 loss to the APA. 


25th ICAP. Elizabeth Nair reported on Organizational aspect and the Scientific program involved in the planning of the 25 ICAP to be held in Singapore July 7-12, 2002. Divisional presidents have been requested to appoint chairs and symposia co-ordinators for their respective divisions and to appoint committee members who would be directly involved in making recommendations for keynote and invited speakers and in receiving abstracts submitted under the specific division. The opening ceremony will be held at the National University of Singapore and all the other activities at the Suntec City. The registration fees will be set at below the rates of ICAP 1998 in San Francisco. About 7% of the total budget has been allocated to encourage participation from lower income countries. Donations are welcome for favoring this purpose.


26th ICAP. James Georgas commented briefly that the organizing and scientific committees of the 26 ICAP to be held in Athens were in the process of appointment. The first onsite visit was scheduled for January or May 2001.


Durban Regional Congress. Michael Frese commented the regional congress held in Durban in July 1999 under the joint sponsorship of the IUPsyS and the IAAP. In fact, it was a national rather than a regional congress because the very large majority of participants were just from South Africa. Another approach should be followed in the 2001 to ensure the presence of leading figures of Psychology in nearby countries when the regional congress takes places in Mumbei.


6th ECP Rome & 7th ECP London. Ingrid Lunt commented briefly the activities held during the 6th European Congress of Psychology held in Rome in July 1999 and advanced plans and actions for the 7th  ECP to be held in London next July 1-6, 2001.  This congress will coincide with the centennial celebrations of the BPS. She asked for the collaboration of EC members. It was raised the issue of the high costs of the registration fee and she commented that congress and living costs in London are “per se” expensive.


27th InterAmerican Congress. Bernhard Wilpert and Susan Pick made a few comments about the 27th Interamerican Congress of Psychology held in Caracas in July 1999 where the IAAP played the role of co-sponsor for the first time as agreed in San Francisco. Susan stressed that 26 congresses were held before, every two years in Latin America, and so the organization of a regional conference in a conventional manner was not justified because “regional congresses were planned by the IAAP and IUPsyS in areas of the world where psychologists usually find it difficult to participate in international congresses due to economic restrictions”.  Workshops and lectures were the focus of the regional meeting held in Mexico in July 1997 under the sponsorship of the IAAP and the IUPsyS but it was more a summer school than a congress. This “continuous training” approach rather than that of a conventional congress should be considered the right model for regional events planned in the future.


Asian Association of Social Psychology. The SG commented on the biennial conference of the Asian Association of Social Psychology, to be held in Melbourne in July 2001. Uichol Kim, member of the EC and president of such association has invited the IAAP and the EC members to become involved organizing activities and co-sponsoring the event. It was in fact a regional congress backed by a regional association. No further comment or proposals were made after the absence of Uichol Kim.


Regional Congress Mumbai. Spielberger commented that a Regional Congress of Psychology was scheduled to be held in Mumbai December 17-20th, 2001 under the joint sponsorship of the IAAP and the IUPsyS. Planning was still in an early phase under the leadership of Blanche Barnes, from the Department of Applied Psychology at the University of Mumbei.  The innovation of organizing the congress in December, summer for many foreign visitors, was highlighted. The issue was raised that it was strange that the Indian Psychological Society was not involved in the planning of such an event, that the EC member from India was not, at least, one of the leading figures of such an event, that other EC members in the region were not directly involved, and that this congress rested primarily on the initiative of some entrepreneurial and individual scholars since only a private travel agency and not the Indian or the Bombay Convention Bureau were conspicuously absent in the planning.  It was commented that the Bombay Psychological Congress Association backed the event. Jitendra Mohan had agreed to participate as a member of the Scientific Committee. The SG raised the issue that this congress might interfere with the Singapore ICAP to be held six months later. Elizabeth Nair seconded such a comment and stressed that she was worrying because both activities were planned and backed by the same international organizations for the same regions and such an event should be re-scheduled for another odd year after the ICAP in Singapore. No further discussions followed about the pros and cons.


11. New issues

IAAP Directory. Charles Spielberger commented that he was in favor of producing and distributing an updated directory of IAAP members as it was done in the past. Several members backed this idea, considered as a kind of visit card or a way of advertising who we are. The SG mentioned that such a directory exists already on a permanent basis at the homepage of the IAAP located at and that the database is updated regularly every three months. There are controls on the online directory to avoid that organizations devoted to capturing databases of addresses for mailing purposes. The online and the offline versions are compatible formats, but production and maintaining costs favor the former.


A document had been distributed summarizing a debate held through the EC members mailing lists about what should be the main focus of future congresses or conventions planned for the odd years. An approach favors following the regional perspective as it has been done in the 1990s. A second approach favors the model launched in Mexico were “continuous training” was considered the adequate framework organizing workshops at low costs for psychologists or students in the region. A third approach introduces the perspective, not tried until now in the IAAP, of promoting divisional events such as a summer school, an institute or an advance seminar organized by an IAAP division with less than 100 members to enhance its international visibility in the field. The expected outcome would be the strengthening of the division and an increase of the number of members of such a “weak” division. This debate and decisions were postponed to further online discussions with the purpose of fixing a pertinent strategy for the first decade of the 21st century before or during the EC meeting in Singapore.  


The physical and psychological suffering of human beings caught up in natural or technological disasters, in wars, in hostage situations, in acts of terrorism has generated new forms of medical and psychological actions sponsored by governmental as well as non-governmental organizations. Medicine without frontiers is a well-established organization and a parallel organization “Psychology without frontiers” has started to move ahead after the initiative was launched during the ICAP congress in Madrid. The IAAP and the IUPsyS have decided to favor initiatives and actions to create professional standards in this domain where psychological assessment and treatment as well as training is demanded regularly by emergency management specialists and decision makers or by institutions such as the NU or the Red Cross. An specific task force must be created and the SG asked the divisional presidents to suggest names that might elaborate and advance the understanding of what should be done to progress in the right direction in this initiative.  Psychological action in this domain requires a multi-divisional perspective. Suggestions and comments are welcome and must be sent to or both the email addresses of the IAAP secretariat.


The creation of a Graduate Student Division was argued by Michael Frese mentioning the initiative backed by the APA under the heading of Science Student Council. Online discussions must follow to fix what can be done before the EC meeting in Singapore.


Two new committees were created, both chaired by Michael Frese:



Charles Spielberger thanked all EC members for the tone and content of the EC meeting that ended by 13:00 July 23rd, 2000.


12. Closing remarks of the SG.

The large majority of documents mentioned in this minutes are available online at and if the authors send to the SG copies in electronic format of the documents distributed just in the meeting room, these texts will be transformed and made available online.  A day and a half of EC meetings seems insufficient to discuss the long list of items included in the agenda.  In Singapore a third meeting will probably be necessary during the Congress as has been in the past in other ICAP. It may be convenient to reduce the number of items on the agenda. Only a few items need an actual face-to-face meeting whereas many may be discussed and settled via email discussion list. New times new tools in the analysis and decision-making procedures.


EC members are requested to inform the SG about their presence or absence in scheduled meetings because rooms must be reserved in advance and an estimate of the number of participants favors not only the right choice of room but also comfort during the meeting and the quality of life, and these aspects are not minutiae.