Approved July 22nd and 23rd, 2000, EC Meeting held in Stockholm




Adair, John., Carpintero, Helio., Culbertson, Francis, Claes, Rita., Dachler, Peter., De Corte, Erik., del Barrio, Victoria., Drenth, Pieter., Porter, Lyman., Erez, Miriam., Fernándes-Ballesteros, Rocio., Fiedler, Fred., Fleishman, Edwin., Frese, Michael., Fukuhara, Michiko., Fumai, Pino., Georgas, James., Knowles, Mike., Malpass, Roy., Matarazzo, Joseph., Merenda, Peter., Mohan, Jitendra., Morgan, Robert., Nsamenang, Bame. Oldenburg, B. Pick, Susan., Poortinga, Ype., Prieto, Jose M., Ratajczak, Zofia., Roberts, Glynn., Sanchez, Euclides., Smith, B., Spielberger, Charles., Tétreau, B., Triandis, Harry., Williams, Allan., Wilpert, Bernhrad, Xu Lian Cang.


Ray. Fowler, Ingrid Lunt, Elizabeth Nair, Oh Teik Guan, Tuomo Tikkanen.



Bond, Michael., Bonnes, Mirilia., Evans, G.,  Jose Ferreira-Marques, Kao, H., Lagerspetz, K.., Leonova, Anna., Lévy-Leboyer, Claude., Marin G., Misumi, J., Ng S. H., and Takizawa, T.



The President, Bernhard Wilpert, opened the meeting at 9.00 am and warmly welcomed all members of the EC to San Francisco.

The President informed the Meeting of the untimely deaths of Richard Campbell, Esther Diamond, Durganand Sinha and Peter Weissenberg and a minute's silence was taken by the EC to honour them and their contributions to IAAP.



The minutes of the previous meeting in Montréal were approved.



In speaking to his written report Bernhard Wilpert referred to key decisions which had been taken involving changes to the Constitution, the change-over in the editorship of the Journal from Michael Frese to Miriam Erez, the holding of the 25th International Congress of Psychology in Singapore in 2002, and the rejection of IAAP’s application to become a full member of the International Social Science Council. Processes which had been introduced included the IAAP/AIPA Brochure, the Presidential letter in the Newsletter, Recruitment of new Members to IAAP, e-mail services, the IAAP archives, the Regional Conferences of Psychology in Guangzhou and Mexico, the Advanced Training and Research Seminars (ARTS), the International Affiliate Organization Members, the World Forum of International Psychological Associations, cooperation with the International Union of Psychological Science (IUPsyS), and the current 24th International Congress of Applied Psychology in San Francisco. The President's report was received with acclamation.



This report, tabled by Mike Knowles, dealt with three main matters. The first was member recruitment in which there were a number of highly successful initiates. These included the ‘1+1’ membership drive; recruitment by individual members of the Executive Committee, especially Pino Fumai of Italy, Bernard Tétreau of Canada, Machiko Fukuhara of Japan, and Anna Leonova of Russia; the ‘Action 100’ initiative; recruitment through the establishment of the new Division of Traffic and Transportation Psychology; the recruiting booths manned at conferences at Montréal, Dublin and Mexico.

Competition, however, from other scholarly and professional associations has been intense and, notwithstanding the achievements of these initiatives, IAAP’s membership has remained static over the past eight years. Thus, the following recommendations were put and accepted in toto.

Recommendation 1: That a function be organized as soon as practicable after the EC elections in order to congratulate and welcome to the Executive Committee the newly elected Members. When convenient, they should be briefed on the role that they are expected to play in recruiting new members to the Association from their respective countries or regions.

Recommendation 2: That the Guidelines for newly elected Members of the Executive Committee, as shown in Appendix 1, be accepted.

Recommendation 3: In similar vein to Recommendation 1 above, that the incoming President, other Officers, and relevant EC Members (eg. Chair of Recruitment Committee, Newsletter Editor), meet with the newly elected Divisional Presidents at some time towards but just before the end of the Congress. It is advised that at this meeting three points be covered in particular, namely, the role of the Divisions in raising IAAP’s profile in between Congresses, the importance of Divisions promulgating their continuing activities via the Newsletter, and the proposal that a concerted recruiting drive be initiated through the Divisions.

Recommendation 4: That consideration be given as to when the next ‘1+1’ recruiting drive is to be launched, and that this recommendation be referred to the Recruiting Committee.

The next matter covered in this report concerned the accumulation and development of all formal documents relating to IAAP and its major operations. These were compiled to form the Manual of the International Association of Applied Psychology which is now available both on diskette and in hard copy.

Recommendation 5: This was that the Manual be accepted by the Executive Committee.

The last item in this report dealt with the cost of operating the IAAP Secretariat which, in other international organizations, has been estimated to be in the vicinity of $25,000

From this discussion, two implications arose.

Implication 1: IAAP is on the threshold of having to allocate a designated amount annually to cover the costs of administering the Secretariat and, possibly, formally appointing a Personal Secretary, probably on a part-time basis initially, to assist the Secretary General.

Implication 2: It is inevitable that the Association will have to increase its fees in the near future in order to become self-sufficient in covering its operating expenses.

Recommendation 6: It was recommended that both these implications be noted.

The Secretary General’s report was received with acclamation.



Rita Claes tabled the financial statements for both 1996 and 1997. The 1996 statement showed revenue of $52,642 and costs of $72,237 giving a loss of $18,595 and the 1997 statements showed a surplus of $6,178

Over this period of time the main increase in revenue was due to increased royalties obtained through rising subscriptions to the Journal, and the main increases in expenditure have promotional costs involved in the membership drives as well as support for the Regional Conferences of Psychology.

The Treasurer’s report was received with acclamation.



a. Report of the Finance Committee

Allan Williams presented the report of the Finance Committee for the years 1996 and 1997. The main observations arising from the report were that savings were gradually being eroded, IAAP does not appear to be retaining enough Members, scope for increasing income through the Journal should be increased, and the hidden subsidies being provided by members and their employers should be noted.

b. Report of the Recruiting Committee

In presenting this report James Georgas stressed the importance of projecting a clear image of the identity of IAAP and what it has to offer potential members, and advised that this was being done through the recruiting booths established at various conferences, the Newsletter, personal communication, and various recruitment programs. In particular it was recommended that the booth at major international congresses should be continued, and that the use of e-mail as a means of furthering contact between members should be increased.

c. Report of the Publications Committee

In presenting the report of the Publications Committee, Michael Frese dealt mainly with the change in publisher from Psychology Press to Blackwell. Both companies were comparable with respect to editorial policy but Backwell offered greater support for the membership and higher financial support for the Association.



a. Applied Psychology

Miriam Erez presented tables indicating the manuscript acceptance and rejection rate of the Journal over the past twelve months as well as the distribution of authors by country of origin, the distribution of manuscripts by content or subject area, and the distribution of reviewers also by country of origin.

Forthcoming special issues on AIDS, Work Values, and Economic Psychology were foreshadowed. Current matters being considered included increasing the submission rate from Divisions, soliciting papers being presented at the Congress, giving editorial support to authors from less developed countries, and providing mentors for younger authors.

b. Newsletter

Ingrid Lunt reported that, in addition to giving the Newsletter a new look with the first issue in 1998, the intention was to develop the Newsletter even further in terms of both look and content. Current initiatives include increasing content from the Divisions, and the availability of the Newsletter on the internet before it is actually published has been most successful. Copies of the Newletter will also be used for publicity and recruitment purposes at the current Congress.

The deadline of 9 September for receiving copy for the next issue of the Newsletter was also highlighted.



a. Functioning of the Executive Committee

Glyn Roberts described the background to the matter dealing with the enlargement of the Executive Committee by including Divisional Presidents in its membership during their terms of office.

In this context it was moved (Glyn Roberts) and seconded (Charlie Spielberger) that the relevant section of Article 6 be changed to the following:

"The Association shall be administered by an EC composed of not less than 24 and not more then 45 members elected by the Association in General Meeting and chosen from among Full Members of the Association. In addition, the Divisional Presidents shall be members of the Executive Committee while in Office".

This motion was unanimously accepted by acclamation.

b. Electronic Communications

José Maria Prieto reported comprehensively on a wide range of ways by means of which links could be maintained between IAAP Divisions and ICAP areas during the period that elapsed between one congress and the next.

A number of Divisions already were already present on the Internet, and this was catering especially for young members who already possessed the relevant skills. Special attention, however, had to be given to the needs of those Divisions not yet present on the Internet.

c. IAAP History

Peter Merenda reported on three major projects which have been undertaken. One was the establishment of the official IAAP Archives at the University of Passau, Germany. Next was the collection of further historical material by Helio Carpintero, relating to the 13th ICAP in Rome in 1958. Contact was also to be made with centres which have significant documentation on the history of early IAAP Congresses such as the Archives Institute J.J.Rousseau in Geneva which holds Claparades’s papers. Another was the slide show for the Opening Ceremony of the current Congress in San Francisco. The fourth, which is in preparation, was the special issue in Spanish of "Revista de Historia de la Psicologia" that will be devoted to the history of applied psychology in different countries.

d. Psychology in Low Income Countries

Harry Triandis introduced this report which primarily concerned a future expansion of the involvement of psychologists in Low Income countries. It covered a range of ideas which were presented for consideration and it was agreed that James Georgas be added to the Task Force and that it reconvene and in order to recommend what actions could be taken on these issues.

f. Advanced Research Training Seminars (ARTS)

John Adair presented a comprehensive report covering the role, structure and methods of operation of ARTS; the form, content and length of its seminars; the criteria for selecting participants in its programs; and the organization of its seminars at Congresses and Regional Conferences of Psychology.

As a result of this, the following recommendations were accepted in toto:

Recommendation 1.

a. That the program of ARTS should be maintained and strengthened.

b. That the statement of objectives and goals for arts be endorsed by each association.

Recommendation 2.

a. That ARTS be recognized as an international activity in joint partnership between IUPsyS, IAAP, AND IACCP.

b. That IUPsyS have primary responsibility for seeing that a Coordinator is selected, that reports of ARTS are maintained and published in the International Journal of Psychology, and for initiating periodic evaluations of arts in cooperation with the other associations.

c. That each international association adopt a policy of requiring congress organizers to provide registration concessions for ARTS participants at each international congress, and to provide logistical support and such other support as may be possible for ARTS held in the same venue.

d. That international associations undertake to promote within their constituencies greater recognition and support for ARTS.

Recommendation 3.

a. That the ARTS Coordinator should be selected by agreement among the presidents of the three international associations.

b. That an ARTS committee consisting of one member selected by and from each international association, be constituted to serve as a supportive secretariat for the ARTS Coordinator, who serves as chair.

Recommendation 4.

a. That the format for ARTS be allowed to vary both with respect to format and length, with a minimum length of one full day.

b. That centrally-initiated ARTS of 1- to 2-day duration at the Congress venue be developed by the ARTS Committee as a means of ensuring topic balance.

c. No ARTS shall overlap with the Congresses they are held in association with.

Recommendation 5. That the following criteria be accepted as guiding the selection of ARTS participants.

a. The large majority of participants should be from developing countries and selected with some regard to their quality and potential personal benefit and national contribution following this experience. When the ARTS activity was started, the idea was that relatively young people would learn about new developments in some area of psychology mainly from international experts, and should hold a position where they would pass on their experience to others. This ideal should be the goal of all ARTS selection processes.

b. Some participants can be from economically strong countries, if their presence serves a clear function within the scope of the seminar, for example as resource persons. It is not permitted that their attendance is subsidized from funds collected for ARTS activities, unless they serve in the capacity of convener.

c. Participants should be from as wide a geographical distribution as possible. This criterion requires that the information on potential ARTS be widely disseminated.

d. Participants should not have been participants at any previous ARTS.

6. That the approval be given by the ARTS Committee for ARTS at Regional Congresses following a formal proposal that addresses the required criteria applied to all ARTS.

The report was received with acclamation.

g. Training and Education

The report written by Bruce Avolio covered both traditional and non-traditional approaches to training, and the issues arising out of both of these approaches. As a result it was decided to form a Task Force comprising Bruce Avolio (Chair), Helio Carpintero, Jitendra Mohan, Euclides Sánchez and Peter Merenda to follow up on this report and lay down principles to guide the teaching of psychology.

h. Evaluation of the IAAP Congress

Fred Fiedler described how the IAAP membership was being surveyed in three ways including a pre-Congress survey conducted by email, a questionnaire enclosed in the registration packet, and another questionnaire to be distributed at the final Congress banquet.

i. IAAP Need Assessment Survey

Rocio Fernández-Ballesteros presented graphics illustrating the results of her comprehensive survey of IAAP’s members’ needs. Breakdowns of the data were shown by continent, age of member, length of membership, profession, Division, type of occupational activity, type of professional activity, main theoretical approach, Congress attendance, opinion of the Journal, opinion of the Newsletter, and expectations of IAAP.

Responses to the open-ended question indicated that members expected their Divisions to provide them with up-to-date information in their field, networking opportunities, and state of the art reports regarding the development of new instruments.

j. Innovative Research Methodologies

Frank Heller drew the meeting’s attention to the fact that IAAP might not be giving enough attention to new or innovative methodologies. Joe Matarazzo commented that it was also important to consider organizing a workshop of the nature of an advanced ARTS. To follow up these suggestions it was agreed that a Task Force be established to examine how such methodologies could be developed and promulgated, and this would comprise Frank Heller (Chair), Peter Dachler and Pieter Drenth.

k. Fostering Cross-Cultural Research

Michael Frese reported that a committee comprising Bruce Avolio, Peter Dachler, Rocio Fernández-Ballesteros, Susan Pick and himself was formed in Montréal to consider ways of encouraging cross-cultural research as distinct from actually doing it. The EC supported this committee in continuing its activities.



a. Reports from Divisions

Written reports were received from the Divisions of Organizational Psychology, Psychological Assessment and Evaluation, and Psychology and National Development. Verbal reports were presented from the Divisions of Educational, Instructional and School Psychology; Clinical and Community Psychology; Applied Gerontology; Health Psychology; Psychology of Law; Political Psychology; and Sport Psychology.

Special issues facing the Divisions such as lack of financial resources and problems of transition were also discussed.

b. Proposal for the formation of a new Division of Applied Cognitive Psychology

Boris Velichkovsky presented a proposal that a new Division of Applied Cognitive Psychology be established. This submission was supported by a list of prospective members.

It was moved that this Division be established in principle, contingent upon the receipt of a constitution and a petition signed by 50 members of the Association (Moved: Charlie Spielberger; Seconded: Peter Dachler).



a. 1997 Regional Congress of Psychology for Professionals in the Americas, Mexico

Susan Pick reported on this very successful first Regional Congress of Psychology to be held in Latin America which attracted over 2,600 participants. The report covered the Scientific Program, the Sociocultural Program, the Sponsors, the Commercial Exhibitsas well as the Advertising and Publicity Progam.

Benefits of the Congress included raising the profile of psychology in Latin America, increasing the self-confidence of psychologists in Latin America, increasing the visibility of international journals, and raising the salience of Latin American countries as venues for future conferences and congresses.

b. 1998 24ICAP San Francisco

Joe Matarazzo as President of the Congress and Ray Fowler as Congress Secretary General reported on the rich variety of the Scientific Program which had attracted 1,315 accepted submissions from a range of 92 countries. The Scholarship Program had also been very successful and 92 scholarships had been awarded with an average award of approximately $700.00. Highlights of the Congress included the Opening Ceremony; addresses by Martin Seligman, Bernhard Wilpert and Yang Kuo-shu; the World Fair; and the Closing Ceremony.

Both paid tribute to the energy and enthusiasm of all members of the Congress organizing team and the report was warmly received with acclamation.

c. ARTS at Baltimore, Bellingham and San Francisco

John Adair reported on the ARTS program in which seminars had been offered on "Qualitative Approaches to Cultural Psychology’’, "Effective Health Behaviour Interventions" and "Advances in Cognitive Psychology" organized Robert Serpell, Martin Fishbein and Peter Graf, respectively. These highly successful programs attracted over 30 participants from 16 countries.

d. 2002 25ICAP Singapore

Charlie Spielberger reported on current planning for the next IAAP Congress to be held in Singapore in 2002 in which primary organizing responsibility lay with Elizabeth Nair and Oh Teik Guan. The Congress had strong support from the National University of Singapore and other institutions, and the venue was the Singapore Convention Centre, which offered some of the most technically advanced facilities in the world.

e. Forthcoming Regional Conferences of Psychology

It was announced that the 1999 Regional Conference of Psychology will be organized primarily under the auspices of IUPsyS and will be held in Durban, South Africa. Expressions of interest had also been expressed from Chile to organize the 2001 Regional Conference and from India to organize the 2003 Regional Conference.

f. European Federation of Professional Psychologists Association (EFPPA)

Ingrid Lund, President of EFPPA, welcomed the developing collaboration between EFPPA and IAAP evidenced, among other things, in the exchange of free booth at congresses for publicising their respective organizations. The biennial European Congress of Psychology is organized under the auspices of EFPPA and the schedule for the next three Congresses is:

(i) 1999 - Sixth European Congress of Psychology, Rome

2001 - Seventh European Congress of Psychology, London (to be held in conjunction with the Centenary celebrations of the British Psychological Society

2003 – Eighth European Congress of Psychology, Vienna

g. Inter-American Society of Psychology (SIP)

Susan Pick announced that the next meeting of SIP would be in 1999 in Caracas, Venezuela.

h. Asia-Oceana Psychology Association (AOPA)

Elizabeth Nair informed the EC of the establishment of AOPA in 1992 at the first Asian Conference of Psychology, and this was followed by further meetings in Guangzhou in 1995 and Montréal in 1996. Expressions of interest in organizing subsequent Asian Conferences of Psychology have been received from Thailand for 1999 and New Zealand for 2001.

One aim is to strengthen the participation of AOPA in the planning of the Singapore Congress. Offers of help were also received from Jitendra Mohan from India and Bame Nsamenang from Cameroon.

i.World Fora of International Psychology Associations

Bernhard Wilpert reported that IAAP and IUPsyS would co-chair the forthcoming fora scheduled for the last day at the Congress to which were invited some 20 International Psychology Associations. The aim of the fora was for participants to meet personally, collect and exchange addresses, and generally explore ways of cooperating together.

j. World Study of Applied Psychology

As Ingrid Lunt reported, this study is being conducted jointly between IAAP and EFPPA, and aims to cover approximately 95 per cent of the some 500,000 psychologists in the world. It covered areas such as education and training; main research trends; science-practice relations; major accomplishments of psychology; and principal public attitudes.


11. 2006 26ICAP

Very well presented bids were received to host the 2006 26th International Congress of Applied Psychology from both Athens and Budapest. The voting favoured, in fact, Athens. However it was decided that a site visit would be undertaken to both organizing committees and a further appraisal made of the suitability.



It was announced by Ed Fleishman that Distinguished Awards would be conferred at the Opening Ceremony to Jose María Prieto, Cigdem Kaichibasi and Gunnar Borg.



a. Officers.

(i) President-Elect: Michael Frese was elected to this Office.

(ii) Secretary-General:  Jose María Prieto was elected to this Office.

(iii) Treasurer: Ray Fowler was elected to this Office.

b. Executive Committee

(i) Re-election to the Executive Committee: The following were re-elected to the EC: John Adair, Pieter Drenth, Rocio-Fernandez-Ballesteros, Robert Morgan, Susan Pick, Zofia Ratajczak and Allan Williams.

(ii) Election to the Executive Committee: The following were elected to the EC: Miklis Antalovits, John Berry, Gunn Johansson, Rabi Kanungo, Dina Krauskopf, Ingrid Lunt, Roy Malpass, Eunice McCarthy, Antonio Mladinic, Gabriel Moser, John Muneme, Elizabeth Nair, Tuomo Tikkanen, Cecilia Thorne and Zhang Kan.

(iii) Resigning Members: The following members resigned from the EC: Bergitta Berglund, Michael Bond, Kirsti Lagerspetz, Francis McPherson and Bernard Tétreau.

(iv) Ex-Officio Members: The following were elected to the EC as Ex-Officio Members: Ed Fleishman, Mike Knowles and Harry Triandis.



(Lyman Porter, Ype H.Poortinga and Allan Williams (Chairman) are members of the Finance Committee.

Student Members on the Executive Committee: Susan Pick raised the question of having student representatives attend the Executive Meeting and this matter was referred for further consideration.

General Meeting:  It was announced that the General Meeting would be held on Thursday 13 August from 6.00–7.00pm in Continental Parlour 1.

Closing Remarks : Charlie Spielberger thanked all EC Members for all their contributions to the effective work of the Meeting and particularly Bernhard Wilpert for the way he chaired the Meeting so effectively.

In recognition of their contributions to the Executive Committee Awards were presented to Rita Claes, Mike Knowles and Harry Triandis, becoming ex-officio members.